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Frequency Specific Microcurrent in Pain Management

By Carolyn R. McMakin

Summary: Frequency-specific microcurrent in pain management describes the origins, mechanisms, beneficial applications, and practical details of frequency-specific therapy – a treatment technique that uses frequencies, micro amperage current, and the principles of biological resonance to treat pain and a wide range of medical conditions.

  • It includes condition-specific frequency protocols for the treatment of various pain complaints, and multi-center clinical case reports documenting successful application of the technique.
  • Each section includes a review of condition pathophysiology and differential diagnosis, plus current research.

References

Chapter 1:

  1. Cheng, N., 1982. The effect of electric currents on ATP generation, protein synthesis, and membrane transport in rat skin. Clinical Orthopedics 171, 264-272.
  2. Electronic reactions of Dr. Abrams. Republished articles from Electronic Medical Digest 1980. Borderland Sciences Research Foundation, Vista CA.
  3. Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., 1985. Principles of neural science, second ed. Elsevier, New York, pp. 331-336.
  4. McMakin, C., 1998. Microcurrent treatment of myofascial pain in the head, neck and face. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 5(1), 29-35.
  5. McMakin, C., 2004. Microcurrent therapy: a novel treatment method for chronic low back myofascial pain. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, 143-153.
  6. McMakin, C., Gregory, W., Philips, T., 2005. Cytokine changes with microcurrent treatment of fibromyalgia associated with cervical spine trauma. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 9, 169-176.
  7. Olmarker, K., Rydevik, B., Nordberg, C., 1993. Autologous nucleus pulposus induces neurophysiologic and histologic changes in porcine cauda equina nerve roots. Spine 18, 1425-1432.
  8. Olmarker, K., Blomquist, J., Stromberg, J., et al. 1995. Inflammatogenic properties of nucleus pulposus. Spine 20, 665-669.
  9. Oschman, J., 200. Energy medicine: the scientific basis. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
  10. Ozaktay, A.C., Cavanaugh, J.M., Blagoev, D.C., 1995. Phospholipase A2-induced electrophysiologic and histologic changes in rabbit dorsal lumbar spine tissues. Spine 20, 2659-2668.
  11. Ozaktay, A.C., Kallakuri, S., Cavannaugh, J.M., 1998. Phospholipase A2sensitivity of the dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion. Spine 23, 1297-1306.
  12. Reilly, W., Reeve, V.E., Quinn, C., 2004. Anti-inflammatory effects of interferential, frequency-specific applied microcurrent. Proceedings of the Australian Health and Medical Research Congress.
  13. Taylor, J.R., Twomey, L.T., 1993. Acute injuries to cervical joints, an autopsy study of neck pain. Spine 18, 1115-1122.

Chapter 2:

  1. Anderson, M., 2009. Is quantum mechanics controlling your thoughts? Discover Magazine, February 2009.
  2. Becker, R.O., Seldon, G., 1985. The body electric: electromagnetism and the foundation of life. Quill, William Morrow, New York.
  3. Becker, R.O., 1990. Cross currents. Jeremy Tarcher/Penguin, New York.
  4. Cheng, N., et al., 1982. The effect of electric currents on ATP generation, protein synthesis, and membrane transport in rat skin. Clinical Orthopedics 171, 264-272.
  5. Huckfeldt, R., Mikkelson, D., Larson, K., et al., 2003. The use of micro current and autocatalytic silver plated nylon dressing in human burn patients: a feasibility study. Pacific Rim Burn Conference.
  6. Kirsch, D.L., Lerner, F.N., 1998. Electromedicine: the other side of physiology. In: Weiner, R.S. (Ed.), Pain management, a practical guide for clinicians, vol. 2. CRC Press, LLC Boca Raton Florida.
  7. Lipton, B., 2008. The biology of belief: unleashing the power of consciousness, matter and miracles, second ed. Mountain of Love Productions, Hay House, Inc, Carlsbad, CA
  8. Oschman, J., 2000. Energy medicine, the scientific basis. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
  9. Oschman, J.L., 2009. Mitochondria and cellular aging. In: Klatz, R., Goldman, R. (Eds.), Anti-aging therapeutics, vol. 11. American Academy of Anti-aging Medicine, Chicago IL, pp. 15-194.
  10. Reilly, W., Reeve, V.E., Quinn, C., 2004. Anti-inflammatory effects of interferential, frequency-specific applied microcurrent. Proceedings of the Australian Health and Medical Research Congress.
  11. Reilly, W., Reeve, V.E., 2005. Private communication – unpublished data from mouse study.
  12. Szent-Gyӧrgyi, A., 1941. Towards a new biochemistry? Science 93, 609-611.
  13. Szent-Gyӧrgyi, A., 1988. To see what everyone has seen, to think what no one has thought. Biol. Bull. 174, 191-240.

Chapter 3:

  1. Bennett, G.A., 2000. Neuroimmune interaction in painful peripheral neuropathy. Clin. J. Pain 16, S139-D143.
  2. Bradley, W.G., Darhoff, R.B., Fenichel, G.M., Marsden, C.D., 2000. Neurology in clinical practice, third ed. Butterworth Heinemann, Boston.
  3. Butler, D.S., Gifford, L.S., 1989a. The concept of adverse mechanical tension in the nervous system. Part 1: testing for dural tension. Physiotherapy 75, 622-629.
  4. Butler, D.S., Gifford, L.S., 1989b. The concept of adverse mechanical tension in the nervous system. Part 2: Examination and treatment 75, 629-636.
  5. Butler, D.S., 1991. Mobilization of nervous system. Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone.
  6. Cloward, R.B., 1959. Cervical discography: mechanisms of neck, shoulder and arm pain. Ann. Surg. 150, 1052-1064.
  7. Hoppenfeld, S., 1976. Physical examination of the spine and extremities. Appleton-Century Crofts, Division of Prentice Hall, New York.
  8. Huckfeldt, R., Mikkelson, D., Larson, K., et al., 2003. The use of micro current and autocatalytic silver plated nylon dressings in human burn patients: a feasibility study. Pacific Rim Burn Conference.
  9. Lewis, C., 2004. Physiotherapy and spinal nerve root adhesion: a caution. Physiother. Res. Int. 9, 164-173.
  10. Meyers, R., Campana, W., Shubayev, F., 2006. The role of neuroinflammation in neuropathic pain: mechanism and therapeutic targets. Drug Discov. Today 11, 8-20.
  11. McMakin, C., Gregory, W., Phillips, T., 2005. Cytokine changes with microcurrent treatment of fibromyalgia associated with cervical spine trauma. Journal of Body Work and Movement Therapies 9, 169-276.
  12. Marshall, L.L., Trethewie, E.R., Curtain, C.C., 1977. Chemical radiculitis. A clinical, physiological and immunological study. Clinical Orthopedics 129, 61-67.
  13. Netter, F., 1991. Atlas of human anatomy. Ciba-Geigy, Plate 159, New York.
  14. Olmarker, K., Rydevik, B., Nordberg, C., 1993. Autologous nucleus pulposus induces neurophysiologic and histologic changes in porcine cauda equina nerve roots. Spine 18, 1425-1432.
  15. Olmarker, K., Blomquist, J., Stromberg, J., et al., 1995. Inflammatogenic properties of nucleus pulposus. Spine 20, 665-669.
  16. Ozaktay, A.C., Cavanaugh, J.M., Blagoev, D.C., 1995. Phospholipase A2-induced electrophysiologic and histologic changes in rabbit and dorsal lumbar spine tissues. Spine 20, 2659-2668.
  17. Ozaktay, A.C., Kallakuri, S., Cavanaugh, J.M., 198. Phospholipase A2sensitivity of the dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion. Spine 23, 1297-1306.
  18. Reilly, W., Reeve, V.E., Quinn, C., 2004. Anti-inflammatory effects of interferential, frequency-specific applied microcurrent. Proceedings of the Australian Health and Medical Research Congress.
  19. Tal, M., 1999. A role for inflammation in chronic pain. Curr. Rev. Pain. 3, 440-446.
  20. Travell, J.G., Simmons, D.G., 1983. Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
  21. Winquist, R.J., 2005. Use-dependent blockade of Cav 2.2 voltage-gated calcium channels for neuropathic pain. Biochem. Pharmacol. 70, 489-499.
  22. Zieglgansberger, W., Berthele, A., Tolle, T.R., 2005. Understanding neuropathic pain. International Journal of Neuropsychiatric Medicine, CNS Spectrum 10 (4), 298-308.

Chapter 4:

  1. Cloward, R.B., 1959. Cervical discography: mechanisms of neck, shoulder and arm pain. Ann. Surg. 150, 1052-1064.
  2. Hoppenfeld, S., 1976. Physical examination of the spine and extremities. Appleton-Century Crofts. Division of Prentice Hall, New York.
  3. Kang, J.D., Georgescu, H.I., Intyre-Larkin, L., et al., 1996. Herniated lumbar intervertebral discs spontaneously produce matrix metalloproteinases, nitric oxide, interleukin E2. Spine 21, 271-277.
  4. Kraemer, J., 1995. Natural course and prognosis of intervertebral disc diseases. Spine 20, 635-639.
  5. Lotz, J.C., Ulrich, J.A., 2006. Innervation, inflammation and hypermobility may characterize pathologic disc degeneration: review of animal model data. J. Bone Joint Surg. 88 (Suppl. 2), 76-82.
  6. McKenzie, R., 2006. Treat your own back. Spinal Publications, New Zealand.
  7. Meyers, T., 2001. Anatomy trains. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp. 9-49.
  8. Olmarker, K., Rydevik, B., Nordberg, C., 1993. Autologous nucleus pulposus induces neurophysiologic and histologic changes in porcine cauda equina nerve roots. Spine 18, 1425-1432.
  9. Olmarker, K., Blomquist, J., Stromberg, J., et al., 1995. Inflammatogenic properties of nucleus pulpous. Spine 20, 665-669.
  10. Ozaktay, A.C., Cavanaugh, J.M., Blagoev, D.C., 1995. Phospholipase A2-induced electrophysiologic and histologic changes in rabbit dorsal lumbar spine tissues. Spine 20, 2659-2668.
  11. Ozaktay, A.C., Kallakuri, S., Cavanaugh, J.M., 1998. Phospholipase A2sensitivity of the dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion. Spine 23, 1297-1306.
  12. Solovieva, S., Kouhia, S., Leino-Arjas, P., et al., 2004. Interleukin polymorphisms and intervertebral disc degeneration. Epidemiology 15, 626-633.
  13. Travell, J.G., Simons, D.G., 1983. Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual, vol. 1. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
  14. Travell, J.G., Simons, D.G., 1992. Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual, vol. 2. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
  15. Wang, Y.J., Shi, Q., Cheung, K.C., et al., 2006. Cervical intervertebral disc degeneration induced by unbalanced dynamic and static forces: a novel in vivo rat model. Spine 31, 1532-1538.
  16. White, A.A., Panjabi, M.H., 1978. Clinical biomechanics of the spine. JB Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.

Chapter 5:

  1. Beaman, D.N., Graziano, G.P., Woitys, E.M., Chang, V., 1993. Substance P innervation of lumbar spine facet joints. Spine 18, 1044-1049.
  2. Cavanaugh, J.M., Ozaktay, A.C., Yamashita, H.T., King, A.I., 1996. Lumbar facet pain; biomechanics, neuroanatomy and neurophysiology. J. Biomech. 29, 1117-1129.
  3. Cavanaugh, J.M., Lu, Y., Chen, C., Kallakuri, S., 2006. Pain generation in lumbar and cervical facet joints. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 88 (Suppl. 2). 63-67.
  4. Chen, C., Lu, Y., Kallakuri, S., Patwardhan, A., Cavanaugh, J.M., 2006. Distribution of A-delta and C-fiber receptors in the cervical facet joint capsule and their response to stretch. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 88, 1807-1816.
  5. Gerwin, R.D., Dommerholt, J., Shah, J., 2004. An expansion of Simons’ integrated hypothesis of trigger point formation. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 8, 468-475.
  6. Hoopenfeld, S., 1976. Physical examination of the spine and extremities. Appleton-Century Crofts, Division of Prentice Hall, New York.
  7. Huckfeldt, R., Mikkelson, D., Larson, K., Hammond, L., Flick, B., McMakin, C., 2003. The use of micro current and autocatalytic silver plated nylon dressings in human burn patients: a feasibility study, Pacific Rim Burn Conference.
  8. Lewis, C., 2004. Physiotherapy and spinal nerve root adhesion: a caution. Physiother. Res. Int. 9, 164-173.
  9. McMakin, C., 1998. Microcurrent treatment of myofascial pain in the head, neck and face. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 5(1), 29-35.
  10. McMakin, C., 2004. Microcurrent therapy: a novel treatment method for chronic low back myofascial pain. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, 143-153.
  11. McMakin, C., 2005. Cytokine changes with microcurrent treatment of fibromyalgia associated with cervical spine trauma. Journal of Body Work and Movement Therapies 9, 169-176.
  12. McMakin, C., 2007. Private communication.
  13. Netter, F., 1991. Atlas of human anatomy. Plate 159. Ciba-Geigy, New York.
  14. Phillips, T., 2000. Unpublished data, private communication.
  15. Souza, T., 2009. Differential diagnosis and management for the chiropractor: protocols and algorithms, fourth ed. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Sudbury, MA.
  16. Travell, J.G., Simons, D.G., 1983. Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger manual. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
  17. Travell, J.G., Simons, D.G., 1992. Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual, vol. 2. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Chapter 6:

  1. Dodds, S.D., Panjabi, M.M., Daigneault, J.P., 2004. Radiofrequency probe treatment for subfailure ligament injury: a biomechanical study of rabbit ACL. Clin. Biomech. 19, 175-183.
  2. Grieve, G.P., 1981. Common vertebral joint problems. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
  3. Hart, D.P., Dahners, L.E., 1987. Healing of the medial collateral ligament in rats. The effects of repair, motion, and secondary stabilizing ligaments. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am. 69, 1194-1199.
  4. Konttinen, Y.T., Santavirta, S., Kauppit, M., Isomaki, H., Slati, S., 1989. Atlantoaxial laxity in rheumatoid arthritis. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 60 (4), 379-382.
  5. Lentell, G., Bass, B., Lopez, D., McGuire, L., Sarrels, M., Snyder, P., 1995. The contributions of proprioceptive deficits, muscle function and anatomic laxity to functional instability of the ankle. J. Orthop. Sports Phys. Ther. 21, 206-215.
  6. Martel, W., 1977. Pathogenesis of cervical discovertebral destruction in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 20, 1217-1225.
  7. Meyers, T., 2001. Anatomy trains. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp, 9-49.
  8. Olmarker, K., Rydevik, B., Nordberg, C., 1993. Autologous nucleus pulposus induces neurophysiologic and histologic changes in porcine cauda equina nerve roots. Spine 18, 1425-1432.
  9. Olmarker, K., Blomquist, J., Stromberg, J., et al., 1995. Inflammatogenic properties of nucleus pulposus. Spine 20, 665-669.
  10. Ozaktay, A.C., Cavanaugh, J.M., Blagoev, D.C., 1995. Phospholipase A2-induced electrophysiologic and histologic changes in rabbit dorsal lumbar spine tissues. Spine 20, 2659-2668.
  11. Ozaktay, A.C., Kallakuri, D., Cavanaugh, J.M., 1998. Phospholipase A2sensitivity of the dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion. Spine 23, 1297-1306.
  12. Steiner, M.E., Grana, W.A., Chilag, K., Sheldberg-Karnes, E., 1986. The effect of exercise on anterior posterior knee laxity. Am. J. Sports Med. 14, 24-29.
  13. Taylor, J.R., Twomey, L.T., 1993. Acute injuries to cervical joints, An autopsy study of neck pain. Spine 18, 1115-1122.
  14. Travel, J.G., Simons, D.G., 1992. Myofascial pain and dysfunction. The trigger point manual, vol. 2. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
  15. White, A.A., Panjabi, M.H., 1978. Clinical biomechanics of the spine. JB Lippincott, Philadelphia.

Chapter 7:

  1. Ardic, F., Gokharman, D., Atsu, S., et al., 2006. The comprehensive evaluation of temporomandibular disorders seen in rheumatoid arthritis. Australian Dental Journal 5 (1), 23-28.
  2. Arendt-Nielsen, L., Graven-Nielsen, T., 2003. Central sensitization in fibromyalgia and other musculoskeletal disorders. Curr. Pain. Headache. Rep. 7, 355-361.
  3. Bennett, R., 2007. Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Rheumatol. 21, 427-445.
  4. Borg-Stein, J., Wilkins, A., 2006. Soft tissue determinant of low back pain. Curr. Pain. Headache. Rep. 10, 339-344.
  5. Cheng, N., et al., 1982. The effect of electric currents on ATP generation, protein synthesis and membrane transport in rat skin. Clinical orthopedics 171, 264-272.
  6. Curatolo, M., Arendt-Nielson, L., Petersen-Felix, S., 2006. Central hypersensitivity in chronic pain: mechanisms and clinical implications. Phys. Med. Rehabil. Clin. N. Ann. 17, 287-302.
  7. Dogweiler-Wiygul, R., 2004. Urological myofascial pain syndromes. Curr. Pain. Headache. Rep. 8, 445-451.
  8. Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C., Onso-Blanco, C., Cuadrado, M.L., et al., 2006. Myofascial trigger points and their relationship to headache clinical tension-type headache. Headache 46, 1264-1272.
  9. Fernandez-de-las-Penas, C., Onso-Blanco, C., Miangolarra, J.C., 2007. Myofascial trigger points in subjects presenting with mechanical neck pain: a blinded controlled study. Man. Ther. 12, 29-33.
  10. Gerwin, R.D., Dommerholt, J., Shah, J.P., 2004. An expansion of Simons’ integrated hypothesis of trigger point formation. Curr. Pain. Headache. Rep. 8, 468-475.
  11. Gerwin, R.D., Shannon, S., Hong, C.Z., 1997. Inter-rater reliability in myofascial trigger point examination. Pain 69, 65-73.
  12. Guyton, A.C., Hall, J.E., 1996. Textbook of medical physiology, ninth ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia.
  13. Hsieh, C.Y., Hong, C.Z., Adams, A.H., et al., 2000. Inter-examiner reliability of the palpation of trigger points in the trunk and lower limb muscles. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 81, 258-264.
  14. Hong, C.Z., 1994. Persistence of local twitch response with loss of conduction to and from the spinal cord. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 75(1), 12-16.
  15. Hong, C.Z., 1996. Pathophysiology of myofascial trigger point. Journal of Formosan Medical Association 95(2), 93-104.
  16. Hwang, M., Kang, Y.K., Kim, D.H., 2005. Referred pain pattern of the pronator quadratus muscle. Pain 116, 238-242.
  17. Kelgren, J.H., 1938. Observation on referred pain arising from muscle. Clin. Sci. 3, 175-190.
  18. McMakin, C., 1998. Microcurrent treatment of myofascial pain in the head, neck and face. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 5, 29-35.
  19. McMakin, C., 2004. Microcurrent therapy: a novel treatment method for chronic low back myofascial pain. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, 143-153.
  20. McMakin, C., Gregory, W., Phillips, T., 2005. Cytokine changes with microcurrent treatment of fibromyalgia associated with cervical spine trauma. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 9, 169-176.
  21. Mense, S., Simons, D.G., Hoheisel, U., Quenzer, B., 2003. Lesions of rat skeletal muscle after local block of acetylcholinesterase and neuromuscular stimulation. J. Appl. Physicol. 94 (6), 2494-2501.
  22. Netter, F., 1991. Atlas of human anatomy. Plate 22, Ciba-Geigy, New York.
  23. Niel-Asher, S., 2008. The concise book of trigger points, second ed. Lotus Publishing, Chichester, UK.
  24. Oschman, J., 2008. Energy medicine: the scientific basis. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.
  25. Sciotti, V.M., Mittak, V.L., DiMarco, L., et al., 2001. Clinical precision of myofascial trigger point location in the trapezius muscle. Pain 93, 259-266.
  26. Shah, J.P., Phillips, T.M., Danoff, J.V., Gerber, L.H., 2005. An in vivo microanalytical technique for measuring the local biochemical milieu of human skeletal muscle. J. Appl. Physiol. 99, 1977-1984.
  27. Simons, D.G., Travell, J.G., 1983. Myofascial origins of low back pain; Principles of Diagnosis and treatment. Postgrad. Med. 73, 66, 68-70.
  28. Simons, D.G., Mense, S., Russel, I.J., 2001. Muscle pain: understanding its nature, diagnosis and treatment. First ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 205-288.
  29. Travell, J.G., Simmons, D.G., 1983. Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual; upper extremity. Williams & Wilkens, Baltimore.
  30. Travell, J.G., Simons, D.G., 1992. Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual; lower extremity, vol. 2. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Chapter 8:

  1. Adler, G., et al., 1999. Reduced Hypothalamic-Pituitary and Sympathoadrenal Responses to Hypoglycemia in Women with Fibromyalgia Syndrome. American Journal of Medicine May.
  2. Baker, Sidney, M.D., 1997. Detoxification and healing: The key to optimal health. Keats Publishing New Canan, CT.
  3. Bennett, G.J., 1994. Melzak, Wall, (Eds.), Neuropathic Pain:Textbook of Pain. 3rd edition Churchill Livingstone, London, pp. 201-224.
  4. Bennett, R.M., 1999. Emerging concepts in the neurobiology of chronic pain: evidence of abnormal sensory processing in Fibromyalgia. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 74, 385-398.
  5. Bennett, R.M., et al., 1997. Hypothalamic – pituitary – insulin like growth factor-I axis dysfunction in patients with Fibromyalgia. J. of Rheumatology 24, 1384-1389.
  6. Bendtsen, L., 1998. Evidence of qualitatively altered nociception in patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism 41, 196-1971.
  7. Bogduk, N., 1988. The innervation of the cervical intervertebral discs. SPINE 13, 2-8.
  8. Bohlman, H., 1979. Acute fractures and dislocations of the cervical spine. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 61A, 1119-1142.
  9. Busklla, D., Neuman, L., Valsberg, G., Alkalay, D., Wofe, F., 1997. Increased rates of fibromyalgia following cervical spine injury: a controlled study of 161 cases of traumatic injury. Arthritis and Rheumatism 40, 446-452.
  10. Cavanaugh, J.M., Ozaktay, A.C., Yamashita, T., Avramov, A., Getchell, T.V., King, A.I., 1997. Mechanisms of low back pain. Clinical Orthopedics 335, 166-180.
  11. Chen, C., Cavanaugh, J.M., Ozaktay, A.C., Kallakuri, S., King, A.I., 1997. Effects of phospholipase A2on lumbar nerve root structure and function. SPINE 22, 1057-1064.
  12. Cloward, R.B., 1959. Cervical discography: Mechanisms of neck, shoulder and arm pain. Annals of Surgery 150, 1052-1064.
  13. Crofford, L., 1998. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in Fibromyalgia and related disorders, the American Journal of the medical Sciences. June 315 (6).
  14. Crofford, L.J., Engleberg, N.C., Demitrack, M.A., 1996. Neurohormal perturbations in Fibromyalgia. Bailliere’s Clin Rheumatoal 10, 365-378.
  15. Crofford, L.J., Demitrack, M.A., 1996. Evidence that abnormalities of central neurohormonal systems are key to understanding Fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Rheumatology Disease Clinics of North America 22, 267-284.
  16. Dessein, et al, 1999. Hyposecretion of adrenal androgens and the relation of serum adrenal steroids, serotonin and IgFl to clinical features in women with Fibromyalgia. Pain 83, 313-319.
  17. Galland, Leo, M.D., 1997. Four Pillars of Healing. Random House, New York, NY.
  18. Guyton, A.C., 1986. Textbook of Medical Physiology. Seventh Edition, WB Saunders Co.
  19. Henley, Jesse Lynn, M.D., Tired of being tired, 2001. Berkley Publishing group. Penguin Putnam, Inc.
  20. Jeffries, William McK., M.D., 1996. Safe uses of Cortisol, 2ndedition Charles Thomas Publisher, Ltd, Springfield, Illinois.
  21. Juhl, J., 1998. Fibromyalgia and the serotonin Pathway. Alternative Medicine Review 3 (5).
  22. Kandel, E., Schwartz, J., 1985. Principles of Neural Science. 2ndedition Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., New York, pp. 331-336.
  23. Lombard, M.C., Larabi, Y., 1983. Electrophysiological study of cervical dorsal horn cells in partially deafferented rats. Advances in Pain research and Therapy. Raven Press, New York, pp. 147-154.
  24. Maes, M., et al., 1998. Increased 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion in patients with PTSD and major depression, but not in patients with fibromyalgia. Acta Psychiatr Scan 98, 328-335.
  25. Marshall, L.L., Trethewie, E.R., Curtain, C.C., 1997. Chemical radiculitis. A clinical, physiological and immunological study. Clinical Orthopedics 129, 61-67.
  26. McCarron, R.F., Wimpee, M.W., Hudkins, P.G., Laros, G.S., 1987. The inflammatory effect of nucleus pulpous: A possible element in the pathogenesis of low back pain. SPINE 12, 760-764.
  27. McMakin, C., 1998. Microcurrent Treatment of Myofascial Pain in the Head, Neck and Face. Topics in Clinical Chiropractic 5 (1), 29-35.
  28. McMakin, C., 2004. Microcurrent therapy: a novel treatment method for chronic low back myofascial pain. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, 143-153.
  29. McMakin, C., Gregory, W., Phillips, T., 2005. Cytokine changes with microcurrent treatment of Fibromyalgia associate with cervical spine trauma. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 9, 169-176.
  30. Mendel, T., Wink, C.S., 1989. Neural elements in cervical intervertebral discs. Anatomic Record 223, 78A.
  31. Moldofsky, H., Scaribrik, P., England, R., 1975. Musculoskeletal Symptoms and non-REM Sleep Disturbance in Patients with ‘Fibrositis’ Syndrome and Healthy Subjects. Psychosomatic Medicine. 37, 341-351.
  32. Mountz, J.M., et al., 1995. Fibromyalgia in women: abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow in the thalamus and the caudate nucleus are associated with low pain thresholds levels. Arthritis Rheum 38, 926-938.
  33. Neeck, G., Riedel, W., 1999. Hormonal Perturbations in Fibromyalgia Syndrome. Annals New York Academy of Sciences.
  34. Netter, F., 1991. Atlas of Human Anatomy. Ciba-Geigy plate 159.
  35. Olmarker, K., Rydevik, B., Nordberg, C., 1993. Autologous nucleus pulposus induces neurophysiologic and histologic changes in porcine cauda equina nerve roots. SPINE 18, 1425-1432.
  36. Olmarker, K., Blomquist, J., Stromberg, J., Nannmark, U., Thomsen, P., Rydevik, B., 1995. Inflammatogenic properties of nucleus pulposus. SPINE 20, 665-669.
  37. Ozaktay, A.C., Cavanaugh, J.M., Blagoev, D.C., 1995. Phospholipase A2– induced electrophysiologic and histologic changes in rabbit dorsal lumbar spine tissues. SPINE 20, 2659-2668.
  38. Ozaktay, A.C., Kallakuri, S., Cavanaugh, J.M., 1998. Phospholipase A2sensitivity of the dorsal root and dorsal root ganglion. SPINE 23 (12), 129-1306.
  39. Russel, I.J., Vipraio, G.A., Morgan W.W., Bowden, C.L., 1986. Is There a Metabolic Basis for the Fibrositis Syndrome. The American Medical Journal. 81, 50-54.
  40. Sapolsky, Robert, 1994. Why zebras don’t get ulcers. WH Freeman and Company, New York.
  41. Taylor, J.R., Twomey, L.T., 1993. Acute injuries to cervical joints. An autopsy study of neck pain. SPINE 18 (9). 1115-1122.
  42. Teitelbaum, Jacob, MD, 2001. From Fatigued to Fantastic. Penguin Putnam, Inc New York, NY.

Chapter 9:

  1. Bradley, W.G., Darhoff, R.B., Fenichel, G.M., Marsden, C.D., 2000. Neurology in clinical practice, third ed. Butterworth Heinemann, Boston.
  2. Liu, S., Knafels, J.D., Chang, J.S., et al., 2006. Crystal structure of the herpes simplex virus 1 DNA polymerase. J. Biol. Chem. 281, 18193-18200.
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Chapter 10:

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