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Mercury Detoxification

By Tom McGuire, DDS

References:

Antioxidants: General

  • Antioxidant compounds and Ca(2+) pathway blockers differentially protect against methylmercury and mercuric chloride neurotoxicity. Gasso S, et al. J Neurosci Res. 2001 Oct 1; 66(1):135-45.
  • Antioxidants inhibit mercuric chloride-induced early vasculitis. Wu Z, et al. Int Immunol. 2002 Mar; 14(3):267-73.
  • Effects of SH-blocking compounds on the energy metabolism in isolated rat hepatocytes. Boot JH. Cell Struct Funct. 1995 Jun; 20(3):233-8.
  • Influence of amalgam fillings on Hg levels and total antioxidant activity in plasma of healthy donors. Pizzichini M, et al. Sci Total Environ. 2003 Jan 1; 301(1-3):43-50.
  • Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity in different organs of mice exposed to low level of mercury. Mahboob M, et al. J Environ Sci Health B. 2001 Sep; 36(5):687-97. Web
  • Mercuric chloride-induced reactive oxygen species and its effect on antioxidant enzymes in different regions of rat brain. Hussain S, et al. J Environ Sci Health B. 1997 May; 32(3):395-409.
  • Mercury, selenium, and glutathione peroxidase before and after amalgam removal in man. Molin M, et al. Acta Odontol Scand. 1990 Jun; 48(3):189-202.
  • Molecular interactions with mercury in the kidney. Zalups RK. Pharmacol Rev. 2000 Mar; 52(1):113-43.
  • Oral succimer decreases the gastrointestinal absorption of lead in juvenile monkeys. Cremin JD, et al. Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Jun; 109(6):613-9.
  • Relationships between alterations in glutathione metabolism and the disposition of inorganic mercury in rats: effects of biliary ligation and chemically induced modulation of glutathione status. Zalups RK, et al. Chem Biol Interact. 1999 Dec 15:123(3):171-95.

Antioxidants: Specific

Alpha Lipoic Acid

  • Effect of lipoic acid on biliary excretion of glutathione and metals. Gregus Z, Stein AF, Varga F, Klaassen CD. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1992 May; 114(1):88-96.
  • Influence of alpha-lipoic acid on intracellular glutathione in vitro and in vivo. Busse E, et al. Arzneimittelforschung. 1992 Jim. 42(6):829-31.
  • Lead induced oxidative damage and its response to combined administration of alpha-lipoic acid and succimers in rats. Parx M, et al. Toxicology. 2002 Aug 15; 177(2-3):187-96.
  • Lipoic acid increases glutathione production and enhances the effect of mercury in human cell lines. Hultberg B, et al. Toxicology. 2002 Jun 14; 175(1-3):103-10. Web
  • Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: Part 1: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. Patrick L. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Dec; 7(6):456-71.
  • Protective role of DL-alpha-lipoic acid against mercury-induced neural lipid peroxidation. Anuradha B, et al. Pharmacol Res. 1999 Jan; 39(1):67-80.

Cysteine              

  • Biotoxicity of mercury as influenced by mercury (II) speciation. Farrell RE, et al. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1990 Oct 56(10):3006-16.
  • Cysteine metabolism and metal toxicity. Quig D. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Aug; 3(4):262-70. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a non-toxic, water-soluble treatment for heavy metal toxicity. Miller AL. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Jim; 3(3):199-207.

Glutathione      

  • Activity of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in workers occupationally exposed to mercury. Bulat P, et al. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1998 Sep; 71 Suppl: S37-9.
  • Biliary secretion of glutathione and of glutathione-metal complexes. Ballatori N, et al. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1985 5(5):816-31.
  • Dependence of biliary secretion of inorganic mercury on the biliary transport of glutathione. Ballatori N, et al. Biochem Pharmacol. 1984 Apr 1; 33(7):1093-8.
  • Effect of different renal glutathione levels on renal mercury disposition and excretion in the rat. Girardi G. et al.
  • Effects of uninephrectomy and mercuric chloride on renal glutathione homeostasis. Zalups RK, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1990 Sep; 254(3):962-70.
  • Glutathione effects on toxicity and uptake of mercuric chloride and sodium arsenite in rabbit renal cortical slices. Burton CA, et al.Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Feb; 103 Suppl 1:81-4.
  • Glutathione mercaptides as transport forms of metals. Ballatori N. Adv Pharmacol. 1994; 27:271-98.
  • Impaired biliary excretion and whole body elimination of methylmercury in rats with congenital defect in biliary glutathione excretion. Ballatori N, et al. Hepatology. 1995 Nov; 22(5):1469-73.
  • Methylmercury efflux from brain capillary endothelial cells is modulated by intracellular glutathione but not ATP. Kerper LE, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1996 Dec;141(2):526-31.
  • Neurodegenerative disorders in humans: the role of glutathione in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death. Brain JS,                et al. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1997 Dec; 25(3):335-58.
  • Tissue glutathione, nutrition, and oxidative stress. Bray TM, et al. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1993 Sep: 71(9):746-51.

Metallothionein

  • Metallothionein induction in fetal rat brain and neonatal primary astrocyte cultures by in utero exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0). Aschner M, et al. Brain Res. 1997 Dec 5; 778(1):222-32.
  • Metallothionein in human gingival amalgam tattoos. Lau JC, et al. Arch Oral Biol. 2001 Nov; 46(11):1015-20.
  • Methylmercury alters glutamate transport in astrocytes. Aschner M, Yao CP, Allen JW, Tan KH. Neurochem Int. 2000 Aug-Sep; 37(2-3):199-206.

NAC

  • Effect of different renal glutathione levels on renal mercury disposition and excretion in the rat. Girardi G, et al. Toxicology. 1993 Jul 11; 81(1):57-67.
  • N-acetylcysteine as an antidote in methylmercury poisoning. Ballatori N, et al. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 May; 106(5):267-71.

Selenium

  • Correlation of mercury and selenium in the human kidney. Drasch G, et al. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1996 Dec; 10(4) :251-4. Detoxification of mercury by selenium by binding of equimolar Hg-Se complex to a specific plasma protein. Yoneda S, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 Apr; 143(2):274-80.
  • Effects of selenium and mercury on the enzymatic activities and lipid peroxidation in brain, liver, and blood of rats. El-Demerdash FM. J Environ Sci Health B. 2001 Jul; 36(4):489-99.
  • Selenium protection against toxicity from cadmium and mercury studied at the cellular level. Lindh U, et al. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1996 Feb; 42(1):39-48.

Blood and Body Fluids

  • ADP-ribosylation of brain neuronal proteins is altered by in vitro and in vivo exposure to inorganic mercury. Palkiewicz P, et al. J Neurochem. 1994 May; 62(5):2049-52.

Brain/CNS/Neurological

  • Application of a latent variable model for a multicenter study on early effects due to mercury exposure. Lucchini R, et al. Neurotoxicology. 2003 Aug; 24(4-5):605-16.
  • Comparison of the developmental effects of two mercury compounds on glial cells and neurons in aggregate cultures of rat telencephalon. Monnet-Tschudi F, et al. Brain Res. 1996 Nov 25; 741(1-2):52-9.
  • Entry of low doses of mercury vapor into the nervous system. Pamphlett R, Coote P. Neurotoxicology. 1998 Feb; 19(1):39-47.
  • Improvement of Nerve and Immunological Damages after Amalgam Removal. Daunderer M. Amer. J. Probiotic Dentistry and Medicine, Jan 1991. ________________________________________
  • Mercury neurotoxicity: mechanisms of blood-brain barrier transport. Aschner M, et al. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1990 Summer; 14(2):169-76.
  • Mercury vapor inhalation inhibits binding of GTP to tubulin in rat brain: Similarity to a molecular lesion in Alzheimer diseased brain. Pendergrass JC, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1997; 18(2):315-24.
  • Metals and free radicals in neurodegeneration. Olanow CW, et al. Curr Opin Neurol. 1994 Dec; 7(6):548-58.
  • Neurological and neurophysiological study of chloralkali workers previously exposed to mercury vapour. Andersen A, et al. Acta Neurol Scand. 1993 Dec; 88(6):427-33.
  • Neurobehavioral effects from exposure to dental amalgam Hg(o): new distinctions between recent exposure and Hg body burden. Echeverria D, et al. FASEB J. 1998 Aug; 12(11):971-80.
  • Psychometric evidence that mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in depression, excessive anger, and anxiety. Siblerud RL, et al. Psychol Rep. 1994 Feb; 74(1):67-80.
  • Subjective symptoms and neurobehavioral performances of ex-mercury miners at an average of 18 years after the cessation of chronic exposure to mercury vapor. Mercury Workers Study Group. Kishi R, et al. Environ Res. 1993 Aug; 62(2):289-302.
  • Uptake of inorganic mercury by the human brain. Pamphlett R, et al. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1996 Nov; 92(5):525-7.

Cellular Damage

  • Ag, Cu, Hg and Ni ions alter the metabolism of human monocytes during extended low-dose exposures. Wataha JC, et al. J Oral Rehabil. 2002 Feb; 29(2):133-9.
  • Effects of mercury on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function. Contrino J, et al: Am J Pathol 132:1,110-118, July 1988.
  • Effect of mercuric chloride on macrophage-mediated resistance mechanisms against infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. Ellermann-Eriksen S, et al. Toxicology. 1994 Nov 11; 93(2-3):269-87.
  • Mercuric compounds inhibit human monocyte function by inducing apoptosis: evidence for formation of reactive oxygen species, development of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition and loss of reductive reserve. InSug 0, et al. Toxicology. 1997 Dec 31; 124(3):211-24.
  • Mercury-induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes: caspase activation is linked to redox status. Shenker BJ, et al. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2002 Jun; 4(3):379-89.
  • Methyl mercury, mercuric chloride, and silver lactate decrease superoxide anion formation and chemotaxis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Obel N, et al. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1993 Sep; 12(5):361-4.
  • Role of glutathione metabolism in the glutamate-induced programmed cell death of neuronal-like PC12 cells. Froissard P, et al. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 May 12; 326(1):93-9.
  • Studies on Hg (II)-induced H202 formation and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro in rat kidney mitochondria. Lund BO, et al. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 May 25; 45(10):2017-24.
  • Toxic metals and oxidative stress part I: mechanisms involved in metal-induced oxidative damage. Ercal N, et al. Curr Top Med Chem. 2001 Dec; 1(6):529-39.
  • Urinary excretion of mercury, copper and zinc in subjects exposed to mercury vapour. Sallsten G, et al. Biometals. 1997 Oct; 10(4):357-61.

Chelation

DMSA & DMPS

  • 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment of heavy metal poisoning in humans. Fournier L, et al. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp. 1988 Nov-Dec; 3(6):499-504.
  • A cluster of pediatric metallic mercury exposure cases treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Forman J, et al. Environ Health Perspect. 2000 Jun; 108(6):575-7.
  • Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a non-toxic, water-soluble treatment for heavy metal toxicity. Miller AL. Altem Med Rev. 1998 Jun; 3(3):199-207.
  • DMPS side-effects. Ray Saarela. A very extensive list of problems with DMPS. weblight.nl/AMALGAM/EN/dmps.html#test
  • DMSA administration to patients with alleged mercury poisoning from dental amalgams: a placebo-controlled study. Sandborgh Englund G, et al. J Dent Res. 1994 Mar; 73(3):620-8.
  • Factors influencing the efficiency of chelation therapy. Kostial K, et al. Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1991; 35(4):337-50.
  • Influence of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-l-sulfonate and dimercaptosuccinic acid on the mobilization of mercury from tissues of rats pretreated with mercuric chloride, phenylmercury acetate or mercury vapors. Buchet JP, et al. Toxicology. 1989 Mar; 54(3):323-33.
  • Mercury from dental amalgam fillings: studies on oral chelating agents for assessing and reducing mercury burdens in humans. Hibberd AR, et al. J Nutr Environ Med 1998; 8:219-231.
  • Meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) Altemative Medicine Review. Volume 5, Number 3, pg 264-67, 2000, Thorne Research, Inc.
  • Methylmercury removal in the dog during infusion of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Kostyniak PJ. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1983 Apr-Jun; 11(4-6):947-57.
  • Succimer, an oral lead chelator. Mann KV, et al. Clin Pharm. 1991 Dec; 10(12):914-22.
  • Urinary excretion of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid in human subjects. Aposhian HV, et al. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1989 May; 45(5):520-6.
  • Urinary excretion of trace elements in humans after sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-l-sulfonate challenge test. Torres-Alanis 0, et al. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2000; 38(7):697-700.
  • Urinary mercury after administration of 2, 3-dimercaptopropane-l-sulfonic acid: correlation with dental amalgam score. Aposhian HV, et al. FASEB J. 1992 Apr; 6(7):2472-6.
  • Utilization of renal slices to evaluate the efficacy of chelating agents for removing mercury from the kidney. Keith RL, et al. Toxicology. 1997 Jan 15; 116(1-3):67-75.

Other

  • Molecular mechanisms of in vivo metal chelation: implications for clinical treatment of metal intoxications. Andersen 0, et al. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct; 110 Suppl 5:887-90.
  • Toxic metals and antioxidants: Part II. The role of antioxidants in arsenic and cadmium toxicity. Patrick L. Altern Med Rev. 2003 Apr; 8(2):106-28.

Dentists and Dental Office

  • Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to HgO among dental professionals: a cross-study evaluation of psychomotor effects. Bittner AC Jr, et al. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1998 Jul-Aug; 20(4):429-39.
  • Chronic neurobehavioural effects of elemental mercury in dentists. Ngim CH, et al. Br J Ind Med. 1992 Nov; 49 (11):782-90. Health and neuropsychological functioning of dentists exposed to mercury. Ritchie KA, et al. Occup Environ Med. 2002 May; 59(5):287-93.

Diseases and Conditions

Alzheimer's

  • Amalgams and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Boyd Haley. whale.to/d/halev.html.
  • Imbalances of trace elements related to oxidative damage in Alzheimer's disease brain. Cornett CR, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1998 Jun; 19(3):339-45.
  • Increased blood mercury levels in patients with Alzheimer's disease.Hock C, et al. J Neural Transm. 1998; 105(1):59-68.
  • Mercury induces cell cytotoxicity and oxidative stress and increases beta-amyloid secretion and tau phosphorylation in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Olivieri G, et al. J Neurochem. 2000 Jan; 74(1):231-6.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

  • Effects of metals on the nervous system of humans and animals. Carpenter DO. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2001; 14(3):209-18.

Arthritis

  • Mercury poisoning: an unusual cause of polyarthritis. Karatas GK, et al. Clin Rheumatol., 2002 Feb; 21(1):73-5.

Candida

  • Candida albicans therapy. Is there ever an end to it? Dental mercury removal: an effective adjunct. Zamm AV. J. Orthomol. Med. 1, 1986, 261-266.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

  • Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Stejskal VD, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(5):289-298.
  • Reactions to metals in patients with chronic fatigue and autoimmune endocrinopathy. Sterzl I, et al. Vnitr Lek. 1999 Sep; 45(9):527-31.

Hearing

  • Evidence that mercury from dental amalgam may cause hearing loss in multiple sclerosis patients. Siblerud RL, et al. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 1997. Vol. 12. 240-44.

Heart

  • Intake of mercury from fish, lipid peroxidation, and the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary, cardiovascular, and any death in eastern Finnish men. Salonen JT, et al. Circulation. 1995 Feb 1; 91(3):645-55.
  • The relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and the cardiovascular system. Siblerud RL. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Dec 1; 99(1-2):23-35.

Herpes

  • Effect of mercuric chloride on macrophage-mediated resistance mechanisms against infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. Ellermann-Eriksen S, et al. Toxicology. 1994 Nov 11; 93(2-3):269-87.

Kidney

  • Influence of amalgam fillings on urinary mercury excretion. Soleo L, et al: G Ital Med Lay Ergon 20(2):75-78, 1998.
  • Mercuric ion attenuates nuclear factor-kappaB activation and DNA binding in normal rat kidney epithelial cells: implications for mercury-induced nephrotoxicity. Dieguez-Acuna FJ, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001 Jun 15; 173(3):176-87.
  • Mercury concentrations in the human brain and kidneys in relation to exposure from dental amalgam fillings. Nylander M, et al. Swed Dent J. 1987; 11(5):179-87.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

  • A comparison of mental health of multiple sclerosis patients with silver/mercury dental fillings and those with fillings removed. Siblerud RL. Psychol Rep. 1992 Jim; 70(3 Pt 2):1139-51.
  • Evidence that mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in multiple sclerosis. Siblerud RL, et al. Sci Total Environ. 1994 Mar 15; 142 (3):191-205.

Parkinson's Disease

  • Direct evidence for glutathione as mediator of apoptosis in neuronal cells. Nicole A, et al. Biomed Pharmacother. 1998; 52(9):349-55.

Respiratory

  • Mercury--is it a respiratory tract allergen. Drouet M, et al. Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1990 Mar; 22(3):81, 84-8.

Thyroid

  • Effects of low mercury vapour exposure on the thyroid function in chloralkali workers. Ellingsen DG, et al. J Appl Toxicol. 2000 Nov-Dec; 20(6):483-9.

Vision

  • Reversible color vision loss in occupational exposure to metallic mercury. Cavalleri A, et al. Environ Res. 1998 May; 77(2):173-7.

Factors Affecting Release of Mercury from Amalgam Fillings

Chewing and Grinding'

  • Influence of chewing gum consumption and dental contact of amalgam fillings to different metal restorations on urine mercury content. Gebel T, et al. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed. 1996 Nov; 199(1):69-75.
  • Intra-oral air mercury released from dental amalgam. Vimy MJ, et al. J Dent Res. 1985 Aug; 64(8):1069-71.
  • People with high mercury uptake from their own dental amalgam filling. Barregard L, et al. Occup Environ Med. 1995 Feb; 52(2):124-8.

Hot Drinks

  • Factors influencing mercury evaporation rate from dental amalgam fillings. Bjorkman L, et al. Scand J Dent Res. 1992 Dec; 100(6):354-60.

Placing and Removing Amalgam Fillings

  • Exposure to mercury vapor during setting, removing, and polishing amalgam restorations. Haikel Y, et al. J Biomed Mater Res. 1990 Nov; 24(11):1551-8.
  • Silver Amalgam - An Unstable Material. Malmström C, et al. Tidsskr. f. Tandlaeger (Danish Dental Journal). October 1989. Bio Probe Newsletter January 1993. p.5. (http://home.swipnet.se/misac/researchl.html)

Tooth Grinding

  • The effect of dental amalgam restorations on blood mercury levels. Abraham JE, et al. J Dent Res. 1984 Jan; 63(1):71-3. 6582086 PubMed.
  • Impact of nocturnal bruxism on mercury uptake from dental amalgams. Isacsson G, et al. Eur J Oral Sci. 1997 Jun; 105 (3):251-7.

Fecal Metals

  • Disposition of inhaled mercury vapor in pregnant rats: maternal toxicity and effects on developmental outcome. Morgan DL, et al. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Apr;66(2):261-73.
  • Fecal Mercury. ISTERH Third International Conference and NTES Fourth Nordic Conference on Disease. Malmström C, et al. Stockholm (Huddinge), May 25 - 29, 1992.
  • Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings. Vimy MJ, et al. Am J Physiol. 1990 Apr; 258(4 Pt 2):R939-45.
  • Mercury in fish: cause for concern? U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Consumer. September 1994. Revised May 1995.
  • Mercury in saliva and feces after removal of amalgam fillings. Bjorkman L, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 May; 144(1):156-62.
  • Speciation of mercury excreted in feces from individuals with amalgam fillings. Engqvist A, et al: Arch Environ Health 53(3):205-213, 1998.

Fetus, Nursing Baby, and Child

  • Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Grandjean P, et al. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1997 Nov-Dec; 19(6):417-28. 9392777 PubMed.
  • Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention. Bagchi D, et al. Toxicology. 2000 Aug 7; 148(2-3):187-97.
  • Comparison of mercury levels in maternal blood, fetal cord blood, and placental tissues. Kuhnert PM, et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981 Jan 15; 139(2):209-13. 7457537 PubMed.
  • Concentrations of heavy metals in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Ong CN, et al. Biometals. 1993 Spring; 6(1):61-6. 8471826 PubMed.
  • Disposition of inhaled mercury vapor in pregnant rats: maternal toxicity and effects on developmental outcome. Morgan DL, et alr. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Apr;66(2):261-73. 11896293 PubMed.
  • Distribution and transfer pathways of antioxidant molecules inside the first trimester human gestational sac. Jauniaux E, et al. J Clin Endocriuol Metab. 2004 Mar;89(3):1452-8. 15001647 PubMed.
  • Effect of inorganic mercury on in vitro placental nutrient transfer and oxygen consumption. Urbach J, et al. Reprod Toxicol. 1992; 6(1):69-75. 1562801 PubMed.
  • Environmental factors associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental deficits. Mendola P, et al. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2002; 8(3):188-97. 12216063 PubMed.
  • Evolution of our understanding of methylmercury as a health threat. Watanabe C, Satoh H. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Apr; 104 Suppl 2:367-79. 9182044 PubMed.
  • Influence of prenatal mercury exposure upon scholastic and psychological test performance: benchmark analysis of a New Zealand cohort. Crump KS, et al. Risk Anal. 1998 Dec; 18(6):701-13. 9972579 PubMed.
  • Intrauterine methylmercury intoxication. Consequence of the inherent brain lesions and cognitive dysfunction in maturity. Kakita A, et al. Brain Res. 2000 Sep 22; 877(2):322-30. 10986347 PubMed.
  • Longitudinal study of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in blood and urine of pregnant and lactating women, as well as in umbilical cord blood. Vahter M, et al. Environ Res. 2000 Oct ;84(2):186-94. 11068932 PubMed.
  • Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings. Vimy.MJ, et al. Am J Physiol. 1990 Apr; 258(4 Pt 2):R939-45.2331037 PubMed.
  • Maternal-fetal transfer of metallic mercury via the placenta and milk. Yang J, et al. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1997 Mar-Apr; 27(2):135¬41. 9098513 PubMed.
  • Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues. Drasch G, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 1994 Aug; 153(8):607-10. 7957411 PubMed.
  • Mercury in human colostrum and early breast milk. Its dependence on dental amalgam and other factors. Drasch G, et al. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1998 Mar; 12(1):23-7. 9638609 PubMed.
  • Placental to fetal transfer of mercury and fetotoxicity. Yoshida M. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2002 Feb; 196(2):79-88. 12498319 PubMed.
  • Placental transfer of mercury in pregnant rats which received dental amalgam restorations. Takahashi Y, et al. Toxicology. 2003 Mar 14; 185(1-2):23-33. 12505442 PubMed.
  • Technical report: mercury in the environment: implications for pediatricians. Goldman LR, Shannon MW. American Academy of Pediatrics: Committee on Environmental Health. Pediatrics. 2001 Jul; 108(1):197-205..11433078 PubMed.
  • The effect of mercury vapour on cholinergic neurons in the fetal brain: studies on the expression of nerve growth factor and its low- and high-affinity receptors. Soderstrom S, et al. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1995 Mar 16;85(1):96-108. 7781173. PubMed.
  • The mercury concentration in breast milk resulting from amalgam fillings and dietary habits. Drexler H, Schaller KH. Environ Res. 1998 May;77(2):124-9. 9600805 PubMed.
  • Total and inorganic mercury in breast milk in relation to fish consumption and amalgam in lactating women. Oskarsson A, et al. Arch Environ Health. 1996 May-Jun;51(3):234-41. 8687245 PubMed.
  • Fish and Food
  • Accumulation of mercury and its effect on antioxidant enzymes in brain, liver, and kidneys of mice. Hussain S, et al. J Environ Sci Health B. 1999 Jul;34(4):645-60.
  • Activated human T lymphocytes exhibit reduced susceptibility to methylmercury chloride-induced apoptosis. Close AH, et al. Toxicol Sci. 1999 May;49(1):68-77.
  • Evaluation of the dose of mercury in exposed and control subjects. Apostoli P, et al. Med Lay. 2002 May-Jun; 93(3):159-75.

Free Radicals

  • Toxic metals and oxidative stress part I: mechanisms involved in metal-induced oxidative damage. Ercal N, et al. Curr Top Med Chem. 2001 Dec; 1(6):529-39.

Galvanic and Corrosion Effects

  • Acceleration of corrosion of dental amalgam by abrasion. Marek M. J Dent Res. 1984 Jul; 63(7):1010-3.
  • Electric current around dental metals as a factor producing allergic metal ions in the oral cavity. Nogi N: Nippon Hifuka Gakkai Zasshi 99(12):1243-1254, 1989.
  • Localized galvanic shock after insertion of amalgam restoration. Owens BM, et al: Compenium 14(10):1302, 1304, 1306-1307, 1993.
  • Long term corrosion studies of amalgams and casting alloys in contact. Moberg LE: Acta Odontal Scand 43:163-177, 1985.
  • Unusual in vivo extensive corrosion of a low-silver amalgam restoration involving galvanic coupling: a case report. Toumelin Chemla F, et al. Quintessence Int. 2003 Apr; 34(4):287-94.

Genetic/Mutations

  • Mutagenesis of AS52 cells by low concentrations of lead (II) and mercury (II). Ariza ME, et al. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1996; 27(1):30-3.

Hair Analysis

  • The present mercury contents of scalp hair and clinical symptoms in inhabitants of the Minamata area. Harada M, et al. Environ Res. 1998 May; 77(2):160-4.

Health, General

  • Environmental medicine, part three: long-term effects of chronic low-dose mercury exposure. Crinnion WJ. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Jun; 5(3):209-23.
  • Removal of dental amalgam and other metal alloys supported by antioxidant therapy alleviates symptoms and improves quality of life in patients with amalgam-associated ill health. Lindh U, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 2002 Oct-Dec; 23(5-6):459-82.
  • The dental amalgam issue. A review. Hanson M, et al. Experientia. 1991 Jan 15; 47(1):9-22.

Immune System, Autoimmune, and Allergy

  • Adverse immunological effects and autoimmunity induced by dental amalgam and alloy in mice. Hultman P, et al. FASEB J. 1994 Nov; 8(14):1183-90.
  • Dental amalgam as one of the risk factors in autoimmune diseases. Bartova J, Prochazkova J, Kratka Z, Benetkova K, Venclikova Z, Sterzl I. Neuroendocrinol Left. 2003 Feb-Apr; 24(1-2):65-7.
  • Immunoglobulin levels in workers exposed to inorganic mercury. Queiroz ML, et al. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1994 Feb; 74(2):72-5.
  • Immunological and Brain MRI Changes in Patients with Suspected Metal Intoxication Tibbling L, et al. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. Vol. 4. No. 2. 1995.
  • Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes. I. Suppression of T-cell activation. Shenker BJ, et al. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1992; 14(3):539-53.
  • Murine mercury-induced autoimmunity: a model of chemically related autoimmunity in humans. Bagenstose LM, et al. Immunol Res. 1999; 20(1):67-78.
  • Oral exposure to inorganic mercury alters T lymphocyte phenotypes and cytokine expression in BALB/c mice. Kim SH, et al. Arch Toxicol. 2003 Aug 20.

Infertility and Birth Defects

  • Heavy metals and fertility. Gerhard I, et al. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998 Aug 21; 54(8):593-611.
  • Impact of heavy metals on hormonal and immunological factors in women with repeated miscarriages. Gerhard I, et al. Hum Reprod Update. 1998 May-Jun; 4(3):301-9.
  • Infertility and Birth Defects: Is Mercury from Dental Fillings a Hidden Cause? Ziff S, et al. Bio-Probe, Inc. ISBN: 0-941011-03-8.1987.
  • Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions. Cordier S, Deplan F, Mandereau L, Hemon D. Br J Ind Med. 1991 Jun: 48(6):375-81.

Infusions

  • Hall G. V-Tox. Int Symposium "Status Quo and Perspectives of Amalgam and Other Dental Materials." European Academy. Ostzenhausen/Germany. April 29 - May 1, 1994.

Intestinal

  • Bacterial mercury resistance from atoms to ecosystems. Barkay T, et al. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003 Jun; 27(2-3):355-84.

Methylation

  • Biosynthesis of methylmercury compounds by the intestinal flora of the rat. Rowland I, Davies M, Grasso P. Arch Environ Health. 1977 Jan-Feb; 32(1):24-8.
  • Methylation of mercury from dental amalgam and mercuric chloride by oral streptococci in vitro. Heintze U, et al. Scand J Dent Res. 1983 Apr; 91(2):150-2.
  • The methylation of mercuric chloride by human intestinal bacteria. Rowland IR, et al. Experientia. 1975 SEP 15; 31(9):1064-5.
  • Transformations of inorganic mercury by Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yannai S, et al. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Jan; 57(1):245-7.

Periodontal

  • Maternal periodontitis and prematurity. Part I: Obstetric outcome of prematurity and growth restriction. Offenbacher S, et al. Ann Periodontol. 2001 Dec; 6(1):164-74.
  • Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology and possible mechanisms. Genco R, et al. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002 Jun; 133 Supp1:14S-22S.
  • Periodontal disease is associated with lower antioxidant capacity in whole saliva and evidence of increased protein oxidation. Sculley DV, et al. Clin Sci (Lond). 2003 Aug; 105(2):167-72.
  • Relationship between periodontal disease and C-reactive protein among adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Slade GD, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2003 May 26; 163(10):1172-9.

Relationship to Amalgam Fillings

  • Mercury in biological fluids after amalgam removal. Sandborgh-Englund G, et al. J Dent Res. 1998 Apr; 77(4):615-24.
  • Conference on Trace Elements in Health and Disease. Malmström C, et al. Stockholm May 25, 1992.
  • Mercury concentrations in the human brain and kidneys in relation to exposure from dental amalgam fillings. Nylander M, et al. Swed Dent J. 1987; 11(5):179-87.

Release of Mercury

  • A case of high mercury exposure from dental amalgam. Langworth S, et al. Eur J Oral Sci. 1996 Jun; 104(3):320-1.
  • Influence of amalgam fillings on Hg levels and total antioxidant activity in plasma of healthy donors. Pizzichini M, et al. Sci Total Environ. 2003 Jan 1; 301(1-3):43-50.
  • Influence of liquid films on mercury vapor loss from dental amalgam. Mahler DB, et al. Dent Mater. 2002 Jul; 18(5):407-12.
  • Intra-oral air mercury released from dental amalgam. Vimy MJ, et al. J Dent Res. 1985 Aug; 64(8):1069-71.
  • Human exposure to Hg and Ag released from dental amalgam restorations. Skare I, et al: Archives of Environmental Health 49(5):384-394, 1994.
  • Mercury concentration in the mouth mucosa of patients with amalgam fillings. Willershausen-Zonnchen B, et al. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1992 Nov 13; 117(46):1743-7.
  • Mercury in saliva and feces after removal of amalgam fillings. Bjorkman L, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 May; 144(1):156-62.
  • Long-term mercury excretion in urine after removal of amalgam fillings. Begerow J, et al. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1994; 66(3):209-12.
  • Mercury exposure from silver tooth fillings: Lorscheider, et al: Emerging evidence questions a paradigm. FASEB J 9:504-508, 1995.
  • Mercury toxicity and dental amalgam. Wolff M, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1983 Fall; 4(3):201-4.
  • Model of mercury vapor transport from amalgam restorations in the oral cavity. Olsson S, et al. J Dent Res. 1989 Mar; 68(3):504 8.
  • Serial measurements of intra-oral air mercury: estimation of daily dose from dental amalgam. Vimy MJ, et al. J Dent Res. 1985 Aug; 64(8):1072-5.
  • Side-effects: mercury contribution to body burden from dental amalgam. Reinhardt JW. Adv Dent Res. 1992 Sep; 6:110-3.
  • Silver amalgam: An unstable material. Malmström C, et al. Danish Dental Journal. Tidsskr. f. Tandlaeger. October 1989. Swedish paper translated by Mats Hansson Ph.D., in Bio-Probe Newsletter. Vol 9(1):5-6. Jan.1993.
  • Studies of mercury vapor in the oral cavity in relation to the number of amalgam fillings. Toomvali C: IFM-Kemi-EX 150, 1988.
  • Urinary mercury after administration of 2, 3-dimercaptopropane-l-sulfonic acid: correlation with dental amalgam score. Aposhian HV, et al. FASEB J. 1992 Apr; 6(7):2472-6.

Removal Protocol

  • Mercury levels in plasma and urine after removal of all amalgam restorations: the effect of using rubber dams. Berglund A, et al. Dent Mater. 1997 Sep; 13(5):297-304.
  • Steady-state transfer and depletion kinetics of mercury from amalgam fillings. Halbach S, et al. Sci Total Environ. 2000 Oct 2; 259(1-3):13-21.
  • Mercury released from dental "silver" fillings provokes an increase in mercury- and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal floras of primates. Summers AO, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Apr; 37(4):825-34.
  • Mercury resistance among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Poiata A, et al. Roum Arc)i Microbiol Immunol. 2000 Jan-Jun; 59(1-2):71-9.
  • Particulate inhalation during the removal of amalgam restorations. Nimmo A, et al. J Prosthet Dent. 1990 Feb; 63(2):228-33.

Resistance to Antibiotics            

  • Mercury released from dental "silver" fillings provokes an increase in mercury- and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal floras of primates. Summers AO, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Apr; 37(4):825-34.
  • Mercury resistance among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Poiata A, et al. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2000 Jan-Jun; 59(1-2):71-9.
  • Resistance of the normal human microflora to mercury and antimicrobials after exposure to mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Edlund C, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Jun; 22(6):944-50.
  • Role of mercury (Hg) in resistant infections & effective treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes family viral infections (and potential treatment for cancer) by removing localized Hg deposits with Chinese parsley and delivering effective antibiotics using various drug uptake enhancement methods. Omura Y, et al. Acupunct Electrother Res. 1995 Aug-Dec; 20(3¬4):195-229.

Supplements/Nutrition/Exercise

  • Antioxidants in nutrition and their importance in the anti-/oxidative balance in the immune system. Biesalski HK, et al. Immun Infekt. 1995 Oct; 23(5):166-73.
  • Biological activity of undenatured dietary whey proteins: role of glutathione. Bounous G, et al. Clin Invest Med. 1991 Aug; 14(4):296-309.
  • Effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice. Andersen HR, et al. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1993 Oct; 73(4):192-201.
  • Fluctuation of trace elements during methylmercury toxication and chelation therapy. Bapu C, et al. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1994 Dec; 13(12):815-23.
  • Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention. Bagchi D, et al. Toxicology. 2000 Aug 7; 148(2-3):187-97.
  • Mercury exposure evaluations and their correlation with urine mercury excretion: 4. Elimination of mercury by sweating. Lovejoy HB, et al. J Occup Med. 1973 15:590-591.
  • Nutrition and metal toxicity. Goyer RA. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Mar; 61(3 Suppl):646S-650S.
  • Restoration of methylmercury inhibited adenosine triphosphatases during vitamin and monothiol therapy. Bapu C, et al. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 1998; 17(1):75-80.
  • Role of ascorbic acid on mercuric chloride-induced genotoxicity in human blood cultures. Rao MV, et al. Toxicol In Vitro. 2001 Dec; 15(6):649-54.
  • Selenium: a quest for better understanding. Badmaev V, et al. Altern Ther Health Med. 1996 Jul; 2(4):59-62, 65-7.
  • Toxic and essential metal interactions. Goyer RA. Annu Rev Nutr. 1997; 17:37-50.

Symptoms

  • ABC on mercury-poisoning from dental amalgam fillings. Handbook for victims of mercury-poisoning from dental amalgam. Swedish Association of Dental Mercury Patients. Nov 1993. Mats Hanson, Ph.D.
  • Adverse health effects related to mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings: toxicological or psychological causes? Bailer J, et al. Psychol Med. 2001 Feb; 31(2):255-63.
  • Changes in the nervous system due to occupational metallic mercury poisoning. Langauer-Lewowicka H, et al. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1997 Sep-Oct; 31(5):905-13.
  • Mercury: major issues in environmental health. Clarkson TW. Environ Health Perspect. 1993 Apr; 100:31-8.
  • Mercury vapour in the oral cavity in relation to the number of amalgam surfaces and the classic symptoms. Lichtenberg H. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol 11:2. 87-94 1996.             •
  • Physical and mental problems attributed to dental amalgam fillings: a descriptive study of 99 self-referred patients compared with 272 controls. Malt UF, et al. Psychosom Med. 1997 Jan-Feb; 59(1):32-41.
  • Relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and health. Siblerud RL. Toxic Substances Journal. 10:425-444 1990b.

Symptoms Improvement after Amalgam Removal

  • XII. Amalgam removed and patient cured. Eijkman MA, et al. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 1994 Feb; 101(2):50-3.
  • Consolidated symptoms of 1, 569 patients. Ziff S. Bio-Probe Newsletter. 9:2. March 1993.
  • Dental Amalgam and Health Experience: Exploring Health Outcomes and Issues for People Medically Diagnosed with Mercury Poisoning. Jones L. The Bulletin of the New Zealand Psychological Society. 97, 29-33. 1999.
  • Elimination of symptoms by removal of dental amalgam from mercury poisoned patients, as compared with a control group of average patients. Lichtenberg HJ. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine 1993; 8: pp.145-148.
  • Relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and mental health. Am J Psychother. Siblerud RL. 1989 Oct; 43(4):575-87.
  • Removal of dental amalgam and other metal alloys supported by antioxidant therapy alleviates symptoms and improves quality of life in patients with amalgam-associated ill health. Lindh U, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 2002 Oct-Dec; 23(5-6):459-82.
  • Results of dental amalgam removal and mercury detoxification using DMPS and neural therapy. Kidd RF. Altern Ther Health Med. 2000 Jul; 6(4):49-55.
  • Symptoms before and after proper amalagam removal in relation to serum-globulin reaction to metals. Lichtenberg HJ. Orthomolec Med 1996:11:195-204.

Testing

  • Brain autoantibodies to evaluate toxicity of mercury and other toxic chemicals in autism and PDD, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The Great Plains Laboratory. www.greatplainslaboratory.com.
  • Environmental medicine, part three: long-term effects of chronic low-dose mercury exposure. Crinnion WJ. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Jun;5(3):209-23.
  • Significance of biological indicators of mercury exposure. Apostoli P, et al. Med Lay. 2003 Mar-Apr; 94(2):231-41.
  • Mercury exposure and early effects: an overview. Kazantzis G. Med Lay. 2002 May-Jun; 93(3):139-47.
  • Mercury exposure from "silver" tooth fillings: emerging evidence questions a traditional dental paradigm. Lorscheider FL, et al. FASEB J. 1995 Apr; 9(7):504-8.
  • The dental amalgam issue. A review. Hanson M, et al. Experientia. 1991 Jan 15; 47(1):9-22.
  • Trace element analysis in hair: factors determining accuracy, precision, and reliability. Bass DA, et al. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Oct; 6(5):472-81.

Toxicity

  • Does mercury from amalgam restorations constitute a health hazard? Weiner JA, et al. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Dec 1; 99(1-2):1 22.

Transportation

  • Transport of toxic metals by molecular mimicry. Ballatori N. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct; 110 Suppl 5:689-94.

Types of Amalgam Fillings

  • Effect of selenium on mercury vapour released from dental amalgams: an in vitro study. Psarras V, et al. Swed Dent J. 1994;18(1-2):15-23.

WHO: No Safe Level of Hg

  • World Health Organization (WHO), Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury, pp, 28-33, 84-113, Geneva, 1991.