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Six-Foot Tiger, Three-Foot Cage

By Dr. Felix Liao, DDS

Summary: Do you or someone you know, live with snoring, teeth grinding, poor sleep, aches and pains, chronic fatigue, moodiness, and other seemingly inexplicable symptoms? Your whole body suffers oxygen deficiency from a clogged airway and poor sleep when your mouth is structurally impaired. Six-Foot Tiger, Three-Foot Cage is the first book ever to connect the dots between your mouth structure and total health. “Six-foot tiger” is the vicious medical, dental, mood, and financial consequences of a “three-foot cage” – a mouth that’s too small for the tongue.

References:

Introduction

  1. S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Chapter 2: The Craniofacial Complex,” in Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000)

Chapter 1: Redeveloping Impaired Mouth Benefits the Whole Body: The Case of Smithy

  1. Murray W. Johns, “1997 Version of ESS,” The Epworth Sleepiness Scale, http://epworthsleepinessscale.com/1997-version-ess/.

Chapter 2: Good Mouth Bad Mouth

  1. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000), 10-11, http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/DataStatistics/SurgeonGeneral/sgr/welcome.htm.
  2. Etsuko Miyao and others, “The Role of Malocclusion in Non-obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome,” Internal Medicine 47, no 18 (2008): 1573-1578, DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.47.0717, PMID: 18797115.

Chapter 3: Your Mouth-Body Connections

  1. Ide M, Harris M, Stevens A, Sussams R, Hopkins V, Culliford D, et al. (2016) Periodontitis and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer’s Disease. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0151081. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.01510181.
  2. Bradley Bale and Amy Doneen, “Guarantee for Arterial Wellness: Medical-Dental Collaboration Is Critical” (lecture, International Academy of Biological Dentistry and Medicine Annual Meeting, October, 2013).
  3. Bradley Bale and Amy Doneen, “Chapter 3: Red Flags – Are You at Risk?” in Beat The Heart Attack Gene: The Revolutionary Plan to Prevent Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes (Nashville, TN: Turner Publishing Company, 2014), 43-44.
  4. Tanja Pessi and others, “Bacterial Signatures in Thrombus Aspirates of Patients with Myocardial Infarction,” Circulation 127 (2013): 1219-1228, DOI: 10.1161/ CIRCULATIONAHA.112.001254, PMID: 23418311.
  5. Mikko J. Pyysalo and others, “The Connection Between Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysms and Odontogenic Bacteria,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 84, no. 11 (2013): 1214-1218, DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2012-304635.
  6. Seymour M. Antelman and others, “Tail Pinch-Induced Eating, Gnawing, and Licking Behavior in Rats: Dependence on Nigrostriatal Dopamine System,” Brain Research 99, no. 2 (1975): 319-337, DOI: 10.1016/0006-8993(75)90032-3, PMID: 1182545.
  7. Kristine Yaffe and others, “Sleep-Disordered Breathing, Hypoxia, and Risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Older Women,” Journal of the American Medical Association 306, no. 6 (2011): 613-619, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.115, PMID: 21828324.
  8. Kiran Devulapally, Raymond Pongonis Jr., and Rami Khayat, “OSA: The New Cardiovascular Disease, Part II: Overview of Cardiovascular Diseases Associated with Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” Heart Failure Reviews 14, no. 3 (2009): 155-164, DOI: 10.1007/s10741-008-9101-2, PMID: 18758946.
  9. Richard H. Nagelberg, DDS, “The Oral-Systemic Connection,” Dental Economics 101, no. 6, http://www/dentaleconomics.com/articles/print/volume-101/issue-6/practice/the-oral-systemic-connection.html.
  10. Joseph Mercola, “The Greatest Nutrition Researcher of the 20th Century,” Mercola.com, Oct. 6, 2007, http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2007/10/06/the-greatest-nutrition-researcher-of-the-twentieth-century.aspx.
  11. Jerry Tennant, MD, “Master’s Class, Tennant BioModulator, Mind-Body Connection” (lecture, Dallas, TX, Feb. 21-22, 2014).
  12. Louisa Williams, email message to author, June 22, 2015.
  13. Reyes Enciso and other, “Comparison of Cone-Beam CT Parameters and Sleep Questionnaires in Sleep Apnea Patients and Control Subjects,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontolgy 109, no. 2 (2010): 285-293, DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.09.033, PMID: 20123412.

Chapter 4: Saving His Life & Her Sanity

  1. S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Chapter 2: The Craniofacial Complex,” in Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000).
  2. Yu-Shu Huang and others, “Short Lingual Frenulum and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children,” International Journal of Pediatric Research 1, no. 1 (2015), http://clinmedjournals.org/articles/ijpr/ijpr-1-003.pdf.
  3. Reyes Enciso and others, “Comparison of Cone-Beam CT Parameters and Sleep Questionnaires in Sleep Apnea Patients and Control Subjects,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 109, no. 2 (2010): 285-293, DOI: 10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.09.033, PMID: 20123414.
  4. “Obstructive Sleep Apnea” (Darien, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2008), http://www.aasmnet.org/resources/factsheets/sleepapnea.pdf.
  5. Puneet S. Garcha, Loutfi S. Aboussouan, and Omar Minai, “Sleep-Disordered Breathing,” in Disease Management, an online medical reference (Lyndhurst, OH: Cleveland Clinic, 2000-2015), http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemangaemnet/pulmonary/sleep-disordered-breathing/.

Chapter 5: CSI for Your Mouth

  1. Thomas S. Kuhn, “The Structure of Scientific Revolution”, p. 67, Second Edition, Enlarged, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1970 (1962).
  2. Xavier Barceló and others, “Oropharyngeal Examination to Predict Sleep Apnea Severity,” Archives of Otolaryngology – Head & Neck Surgery 137, no. 10 (2011): 990-996, DOI: 10.1001/archoto.2011.176, PMID: 22006776.
  3. Etsuko Myiao and other, “The Role of Malocclusion in Non-obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome,” Internal Medicine 47, no. 18 (2008): 1573-1578, DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.47.0717, PMID: 18797115.
  4. William C. Lee and W. Stephan Eakle, “Possible Role of Tensile Stress in the Etiology of Cervical Erosive Lesions of Teeth,” Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 52, no. 3 (1984): 374-380, DOI: 10.1016/0022-3913(84)90448-7, PMID: 6592336.
  5. S. Rees, “The Effect of Variation in Occlusal Loading on the Development of Abfraction Lesions: A Finite Element Study,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 29, no. 2. (2002): 188-193, DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2842.2002.00836.x, http://www.fo.ufu.br/sites/fo.ufu.br./files/Anexos/Comunicados/Rees_JS_2002.pdf.
  6. Dave Singh, “Guest Editorial on the Etiology and Significance of Palatal and Mandibular Tori,” CRANIO: The Journal of Craniomandibular & Sleep Practice 28, no. 4 (2010): 213-215, PMID: 21032973, http://www.smileprofessionals.com/uploads/Cranio-2010-Tori-Singh.pdf.

Chapter 6: Damaging Domino Effects of Impaired Mouth

  1. Dave Singh and James A. Krumholtz, Epigenetic Orthodontics in Adults (Chatsworth, CA: Smile Foundation, 2009).
  2. Shiroh Isono and others, “Anatomy of Pharynx in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and in Normal Subjects,” Journal of Applied Physiology 82, no. 4 (1997): 1319-1326, http://jap.physiology.org/content/82/4/1319, PMID: 9104871.
  3. Sonal B. Dudhia and Bhavin B. Dudbia, “Undetected Hypothyroidism: A Rate Dental Diagnosis,” Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology 18, no. 2 (2014):315-319, DOI: 10.4103/9073-029X.140922, PMID: 25328321.
  4. Mark Starr, Hypothyroidism Type 2: The Epidemic (Columbia, MO: Mark Starr Trust, 2011), 119.
  5. Roseane C. Marchiori and others, “Improvement of Blood Inflammatory Marker Levels in Patients with Hypothyroidism Under Levothyroxine Treatment,” BMC Endocrine Disorders 15, no. 32 (2015), DOI: 10.1186/s12902-015-0032-3., PMID: 26100072.

Chapter 7: A Deeper Look at Obstructive Sleep Apnea

  1. William C. Dement and Merrill M. Mitler, “It’s Time to Wake Up to the Importance of Sleep Disorders,” Journal of the American Medical Association 269, no. 12 (1993): 1548-1550, DOI: 10.1001/jama.1993.03500120080632, PMID: 8445820.
  2. Vishesh Kapur and others, “The Medical Cost of Undiagnosed Sleep Apnea,” SLEEP 22, no. 6 (1999): 749-755, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=24161, PMID: 10505820.
  3. “Obstructive Sleep Apnea” (Darrien, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2008), http://www.aasmnet.org/resources/factsheets/sleepapnea.pdf.
  4. Atul Malhorta and David P. White, “Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” Lancet 360, no. 9328 (2002): 237-245, DOI: 10.1016/ S0140-6736(02)09464-310.1016/S0140-6736(02)09464-3.
  5. Terry Young and others. “The Occurrence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing Among Middle-Aged Adults,” New England Journal of Medicine 328, no. 17 (1993): 1230-235, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199304293281704, PMID: 8464434.
  6. Terry Young and others, “Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Mortality: Eighteen-Year Follow-up of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort,” SLEEP 31, no. 8 (2008): 1071-1078, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx/pid=27213, PMID: 18714778.
  7. Andrew Schriber, “Obstructive Sleep Apnea – Adults,” MedlinePlus, https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000811.htm.

Chapter 8: Resolving High Blood Pressure Without Medication

  1. Jo-Dee L. Lattimore, David S. Celermajer, and Ian Wilcox, “Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 41, no. 9 (2003): 1429-1437, DOI: 101016/S0735-1097(03)00184-0, PMID: 12742277.
  2. “Understanding Blood Pressure Readings,” American Heart Association, http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/AboutHighBloodPressure/Understanding-Blood-Pressure-Readings_UCM_301764_Articles.jsp.
  3. Kazuya Yoshida, “Effect on Blood Pressure of Oral Appliance Therapy for Sleep Apnea Syndrome,” International Journal of Prosthodontics 19, no. 1 (2006): 61-66, http://www.quintpub.com/journals/ijp/abstract.php?iss2_id=184&article_id=2102&artcle=17&title=Effect -. VhgFWyjZg07, PMID: 16479762.

Chapter 9: Sleep Apnea Solution: CPAP Dependence or Oral Appliance Development?

  1. “Obstructive sleep Apnea” (Darien, IL: American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 2008), http://www.aasmnet.org/resources/factsheets/sleepapnea.pdf.
  2. See note 1.
  3. Clete A. Kushida and others, “Practice Parameters for the Treatment of Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Oral Appliances: An Update for 2005; An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Report,” SLEEP 29, no. 2 (2006): 240-243, PMID: 16494092, http://www.aasmnet.org/resources/practiceparameters/pp_update_oralapplicance.pdf.
  4. Kannan Ramar and others, “Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring with Oral Appliance Therapy: An Update for 2015,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 11, no. 7 (2015): 773-827, DOI: 105664/jcsm.4858, http://www.aasmnet.org/Resources/clinicalguidelines/Oral_applicane-OSA.pdf.
  5. Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, “Oral Appliances for Treatment of Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness” CADTH Technology Overviews 1, no. 1 (2010): e0107, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3411138/.
  6. Andrew S.L. Chan, Robert W.W. Lee, and Peter A. Cistulli, “Dental Appliance Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” Chest 132, no. 2 (2007): 693-699, DOI: 10.1378/chest.06-2038, PMID: 17699143.
  7. Glenn T. Clark and others, “A Crossover Study Comparing the Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure with Anterior Mandibular Positioning Devices on Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” Chest 109, no. 6 (1996): 1477-1483, DOI: 10.1378/chest.109.6.1477, PMID: 8769497.
  8. Kathleen A. Ferguson and others, “A Randomized Crossover Study of an Oral Appliance Vs Nasal-Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in the Treatment of Mild-Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” Chest 109, no. 5 (1996): 1269-1275, DOI: 10.1378/chest.109.5.1269, PMID: 8625679.
  9. Helen Gotsopoulos, John J. Kelly, and Peter A. Cistulli, “Oral Appliance Therapy Reduces Blood Pressure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized, Controlled Trial,” SLEEP 27, no. 5 (2004): 934-941, http://journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=26027, PMID: 15453552.
  10. Kathleen A. Ferguson and others, “Oral Appliances for Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Review,” SLEEP 29, no. 2 (2006): 244-262, http://www.journalsleep.org/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=26465, PMID: 16494093.
  11. Bing Lam and others, “Randomised Study of Three Non-surgical Treatment in Mild to Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnoea,” Thorax 62, no. 4 (2007): 354-359, DOI: 10.1136/thx.206.063644, PMID: 17121868.
  12. Hiroko Tsuda and others, “Craniofacial Changes After Two Years of Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Use in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” Chest 138, no. 4 (2010): 870-874, DOI: 10.1378/chest.10-0678, PMID: 20616213.

Chapter 10: The Rarely Addressed Game Changer: The Maxilla

  1. Donald H. Enlow, Robert E. Moyers, and William W. Merow, Handbook of Facial Growth (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co., 1975).
  2. Weston A. Price, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration (Lemon Grove, CA: Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, 2008). An earlier version of the book can be read at http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks02/0200251h.html or http://journeytoforever.org/farm_library/price/pricetoc.html.
  3. Francis M. Pottenger Jr., Pottenger’s Cats: A Study in Nutrition, 2nd (Lemon Grove, CA: Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, 1995).
  4. Sally Fallon, Nourishing Traditions Diet, New Trends Publishing (2003) 2nd

Chapter 12: Better Sleep, Better Health, Better Looks: The Maxilla Triple Win

  1. Yu-shu Huang, Stacey Quo, Andrew Berkowski, Christian Guilleminault, Short Lingual Frenulum and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children. International Journal of Pediatric Research 2015, 1:003.
  2. Ranji Varghese, Nathan G. Adams, Nancy L. Slocumb, Christopher F. Viozzi, Kannan Ramar, and Eric J. Olson. Maxillomandibular Advancement in the Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. International Journal of Otolaryngology, Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 3773025, 8 pages: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/373025
  3. James A. McNamara J., Components of Class II Malocclusion in Children 8-10 Years of Age. The Angle Orthodontist: July 1981, Vol. 51, No. 3, pp. 177-202, Figure 6 and 7.
  4. Dave Singh and James A. Krumholtz, Epigenetic Orthodontics in Adults (Chatsworth, CA: Smile Foundation, 2009), page 27.
  5. SAME AS 4.
  6. Baccetti T, McGill JS, Franchi L, McNamara JA, Jr, Tollaro I. Skeletal effects of early treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary expansion and face-mask therapy Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop.1998;113:333-43.
  7. Aelred C. Fonder, “Dental Distress Syndrome Quantified,” Basal Facts 9, no. 4 91987): 141-167, http://www.betterhealththruresearch.com/OldSite/DDS.pdf.
  8. Etsuko Miyao and others, “The Role of Malocclusion in Non-obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome,” Internal Medicine 47, no. 18 (2008): 1573-1578, DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.47.0717, PMID: 18797115.
  9. Maria Angeles Fuentes and others, “Lateral Functional Shift of the Mandible: Part II. Effects on Gene Expression in Condylar Cartilage,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 123, no. 2 (2003): 160-166, DOI: 10.1067/mod.2003.6, PMID: 12594422.

Chapter 13: The Telltale Tongue

  1. Dave Singh and James A. Krumholtz, Epigenetic Orthodontics in Adults (Chatsworth, CA: Smile Foundation, 2009), page 60; Melvin L. Moss, “The Functional Matrix Hypothesis Revisited: 2. The Role of an Osseous Connected Cellular Network,” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 112, no. 2 (1997): 221-226, DOI: 10.1016/S0889-5406(97)70249-X, PMID: 9267235.
  2. Yu-Shu Huang and others, “Short Lingual Frenulum and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children,” International Journal of Pediatric Research 1, no. 1 (2015), http://clinmedjournals.org/articles/ijpr/ijpr-1/003.pdf.
  3. Academy of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy, “Frequently Asked Questions and Answers in the Area of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy” (Pacific Palisades, CA: Academy of Orofacial Myofuntional Therapy, 2014).
  4. See note 2; Christian Fuilleminault and others, “Pediatric OSA, Myo-facial Reeducation, and Facial Growth,” Journal of Sleep Research 21, suppl. 1, (2012): 70.
  5. Anna H. Messner and M. Lauren Lalakea, “Ankyloglossia: Controversies in Management,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 54, no. 2-3 (2000): 123-131, DOI: 1016/S0165-5876(00)00359-1, PMID: 10967382.
  6. Irene Queiroz Marchesan, “Lingual Frenum Protocol,” International Journal of Orofacial Myology 38 (2012): 89-103, PMID: 23367525, http://cpal.edu.pe/info/2012 Marchesan Lingual Frenulum Protocol.pdf.
  7. Yu-Shu Huang and others, “Short Lingual Frenulum and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children,” International Journal of Pediatric Research 1, no. 1 (2015), http://clinmedjournals.org/articles/ijpr/ijpr/-1-003.pdf.
  8. Macario Camacho and other, “Myofunctional Therapy to Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” SLEEP 38, no. 5 (2015): 669-675, DOI: 10.5665/sleep.4652, PMID: 25348130.
  9. Academy of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy, “Frequently Asked Questions and Answers in the Area of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy”, Pacific Palisades, CA, Academy of Orofacial Myofunctional Therapy (2014).

 Chapter 14: Tongue-tie’s Treachery

  1. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000), 10-11, Table 1.
  2. Anahad O’Connor, “Sleep Apnea Tied to Increased Cancer Risk,” Well: Tara Parker-Pope on Health (blog), New York Times, May 20, 2012, http://well.blogs.nytimes.com2012/05/20/sleep-apena-tied-to-increased-cancer-risk/.
  3. Javier Nieto and others, “Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Cancer Mortality: Results from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 186, no. 2 (2012): 190-194, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.201201-0130OC, PMID: 22610391.

Chapter 15: Achieving CPAP Freedom

  1. Steven Y. Park, “How a Dentist Can Cure Your Sleep Apnea,” Park’s Sleep Apnea Blog, September 24, 2014, http://doctorstevenpark.com/tag/alf; also author of Sleep Interrupted: A Physician Reveals the #1 Reason Why So Many of Us Are Sick and Tired (New York: Jodev Press, LLC, 2009).
  2. Xavier Barceló and other, “Oropharyngeal Examination to Predict Sleep Apnea Severity,” Archives of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery 137, no 10 (2011): 990-996, DOI: 10.1001/archoto.2011.176, PMID: 22006776.
  3. Dave Singh, “Guest Editorial on the Etiology and Significance of Palatal and Mandibular Tori,” CRANIO: The Journal of Craniomandibular & Sleep Practice 28, no. 4 (2010): 213-215, DOI: 10.1179/crn.2010.030, PMID: 21032973.
  4. SM Banabilh, AM Suzina, S Dinsuhaimi, AR Samsudin, GD Singh. “Dental Arch Morphology in South-East Asian Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: Geometric Morphometrics,” Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 36, no. 3 (2009): 184-192, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2008.01915.x, PMID: 19207445.
  5. Murray Johns, “What the Epworth Sleepiness Scale Is and How to Use It,” The Epworth Sleepiness Scale, http://epworthsleepinessscale.com/about-epworth-sleepiness/.
  6. Dave Singh, S. Wendling, and R. Chandrashekhar, “Midfacial Development in Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” Dentistry Today, June 30, 2011, 124-127, http://www.dentistrytoday.com/dental-medicine/dental-sleep-medicine/5674-midfacial-development-in-adult-obstructive-sleep-apnea.

Chapter 16: Stem Cell Activation

  1. S. Department of Health and Human Services, Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000), http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/DataStatistics/SurgeonGeneral/sgr/welcome.htm.
  2. Vincent G. Kokich, “The Biology of Sutures,” chap. 4 in Craniosynostosis: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management, ed. M. Michael Cohen Jr. (New York: Raven Press, 1986), 81-103.
  3. Lynne A. Opperman, “Cranial Sutures as Intramembranous Bone Growth Sites,” Developmental Dynamics 219, no. 4 (2000): 472-485, DOI: 10.1002/1097-0177(2000)9999:9999<::AID-DVDY1073>3.0.CO;2-F, PMID: 11084647.
  4. Kokich, “The Biology of Sutures,” chap. 4 in Craniosynostosis: Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management, ed. M. Michael Cohen Jr. (New York: Raven Press, 1986), 94.
  5. Cinderella de Pollack and others, “Increased Bone Formation and Osteoblastic Cell Phenotype in Premature Cranial Suture Ossification (Craniosynostosis),” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11, no. 3 (1996): 401-407, DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.5650110314, PMID: 8852951.
  6. Dave Singh and James A. Krumholtz, Epigenetic Orthodontics in Adults (Chatsworth, CA: Smile Foundation, 2009), 45.
  7. Same as above.
  8. A. McCulloch, “Origins and Functions of Cells Essential for Periodontal Repair: The Role of Fibroblasts in Tissue Homeostasis,” Oral Diseases 1, no. 4 (1995): 271-278, DOI: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.1995.tb00193.x, PMID: 8705836.
  9. Wen-Lang Lin, Christopher A.G. McCulloch, and Moon-II Cho, “Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts into Osteoblasts During Socket Healing After Tooth Extraction in the Rat,” The Anatomical Record 240, no. 4 (1994): 492-506, DOI: 10.1002/ar.1092400407, PMID: 7879901.
  10. Byoung-Moo Seo and others, “Investigation of Multipotent Postnatal Stem Cells from Human Periodontal Ligament,” Lancet 364, no. 9429 (2004): 149-155, DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16627-0, PMID: 15246727.
  11. Jun Isaka and others, “Participation of Periodontal Ligament Cells with Regeneration of Alveolar Bone,” Journal of Periodontology 72, no. 3 (2001): 314-323, DOI: 10.1902/jop.2001.72.3.314, PMID: 11327058.
  12. Dave Singh and James A. Krumholtz, Epigenetic Orthodontics in Adults Chatsworth, CA: Smile Foundation, 2009), 278. G.
  13. Dave Singh, T.M. Griffin, and R. Chandrashekhar, “Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy in Adults with Mild Moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” Austin Journal of Sleep Disorders 1, no. 1 (2014): 5, http://austinpublishinggroup.com/sleep-disorders/fulltext/ajsd-v1-id1002.php.
  14. Dave Singh; Tara Griffin; Samuel E Cress Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy in Adults with Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea Disorder & Therapy Volume 5 Issue 1 (2016)
  15. Liao F, Singh GD. Effects of Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy on Epworth Scores in Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea J Dent Sleep Med. 3(3), 98, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.15331/jdsm.5996
  16. Murray Johns, “What the Epworth Sleepiness Scale Is and How to Use It,” The Epworth Sleepiness Scale, http://epworthsleepinessscale.com/about-epworth-sleepiness/.

Chapter 17: Promoting Children’s Holistic Mouth Development and Full Genetic Expression

  1. Yu-Shu Huang and Christian Gulleminault, “Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Critical Role of Oral-Facial Growth: Evidences,” Frontiers in Neurology 3 (2012): 184, DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00184, PMID: 23346072.
  2.  “What Is the Difference Between Epigenetics and Epigenomics?” Epigenesys, http://www.epigensys.eu/it/public/faq-common/11-what-is-the-difference-between-epigenetics-and-epigenomics.
  3. “Epigenomics,” National Human Genome Research Institute, http://www.genome.gov/27532724.
  4. Christian Guilleminault and others, “Sleep Apnea in Eight Children,” Pediatrics 58, no. 1 (1976): 23-30, http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/58/1/23, PMID: 934781.
  5. Rakesh Bhattacharjee and others, “Adenotonsillectomy Outcomes in Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children: A Multicenter Retrospective Study,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 182, no. 5 (2010): 676-683, DOI: 10.1164/rccm.200912-1930OC, PMID: 20448096.
  6. Viola M. Frymann, D.O., Relation of disturbances of craniosacral mechanism to symptomatology of the newborn: Study of 1,250 infants. A.O.A. 65 (1966), 1059-1075.
  7. Christian Guilleminault, Yu-shu Huang, Stacey Quo, Pierre-Jean Monteyrol, Cheng-hui Lin, Teenage sleep-disordered breathing: Recurrence of syndrome, Sleep Medicine 14 (2013) 37-44.
  8. Aelred C. Fonder, “Dental Distress Syndrome Quantified,” Basal Facts 9, no. 4 (1987): 141-1677, http://www.betterhealththruresearch.com/OldSite/DDS.pd.
  9. Enlow D, Moyers R. Merow W, Handbook of Facial Development, W. Saunders, 1976
  10. John Flutter, The Etiology of Malocclusion: http://www.fogvedo.hu/downloads/tudomany_cikk/The_Aetiology_of_Malocclusion%5B1%5D.pdf.
  11. Bresolin D, Shapiro PA, Shapiro GG, Chapko MK, Dassel S. Mouth Breathing in Allergic Children: Its Relationship to Dentofacial Development. American Journal of Orthodontics
  12. Egil P. Harvold, DDS Ph.D., L.L.D.Brittta S. Tamer, DDS, Kevin Varevik, DDS., and George Chierici, DDS- American Journal of Orthodontics Vol 79. No. 4 April, 1981.
  13. Rappai Ml, Collop N, Kemp S, deShazo R. The nose and sleep-disordered breathing: what we know and what we do not know. Chest. 2003 Dec; 124(6):2309-23.
  14. Chang MC, Enlow DH, Papsidero M, Broadbent BH Jr, Oyen O, Sabat M, Developmental Effects of Impaired Breathing in the Face of the Growing Child, The Angle Orthodontist, October, 1998, 58(4), 309-320.
  15. Gill Rapley and Tracey Murkett, Baby-Led Weaning: http://www.amazon.com/Baby-Led-Weaning-Essential-Introducing-Confident/dp/161519021X
  16. Lawrence Wilson, Food Sensitivities or Intolerance.
  17. Patrick McKeown, Close Your Mouth: Stop Asthma, Hay Fever, and Nasal Congestion Permanently. Buteyko Books, Galway 2004.
  18. Environmental Work Group, Cord Blood Study, July, 2005.
  19. Jonathan M.P. Howat, Chiropractic Cranio Fascial Dynamics, Chapter 2. Cranial Communication Systems, Oxford UK 2009.
  20. Francis M. Pottenger Jr., Pottenger’s Cats: A Study in Nutrition, 2nd (Lemon Grove, CA: Prince-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, 1995.

Chapter 19: Holistic Mouth Checkup

  1. David G. Simons, Janet G. Travell, and Lois S. Simons, “Perpetuating Factors,” chap. 4 in Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual, vol. 1, Upper Half of Body, 2nd (Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 1998).
  2. Vishesh K. Kanpur and Edward M. Weaver, “Filling in the Pieces of the Sleep Apnea-Hypertension Puzzle,” Journal of the American Medical Association 307, no. 20 (2012): 2197-2198, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.5039, PMID: 22618928.
  3. Mary L. Adams, MS, MPH, Angela J. Deokar, MPH, Lynda A. Anderson, PhD, Valerie J. Edwards, PhD, Self-Reported Increased Confusion or Memory Loss and Associated Functional Difficulties Among Adults Aged ≥60 Years – 21 States, 2011. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, May 10, 2013 / 62(18);347-350, Div of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.
  4. Angela R. Kamer and others, “Periodontal Inflammation in Relation to Cognitive Function in an Older Danish Adult Population,” Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 28, no. 3 (2012): 613-624, DOI: 10.3233/JAD-2011-102004, PMID: 22045483.
  5. Jana R. Cooke and others, “Sustained Use of CPAP Slows Deterioration of Cognition, Sleep, and Mood in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Preliminary Study,” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 5, no. 4 (2009): 305-309, http://www.aasmnet.org/jcsm/ViewAbstract.aspx?pid=27538, PMID: 19968005.
  6. Ide M, Harris M, Stevens A, Sussams R, Hopkins V, Culliford D, et al. (2016) Periodontitis and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer’s Disease. PLoS ONE 11(3):e0151081. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.015181
  7. Dementia is the Most Costly Disease in America, Alzheimer’s Association: http://act.alz.org/site/MessageViewer?dlv_id=101541&em_id=80007.0

Chapter 20: From Teeth To Mouth: The Next Paradigm Shift

  1. What Is A Paradigm Shift: http://www.taketheleap.com/define/html
  2. Jo-Dee L. Lattimore, David S. Celermajer, and Ian Wilcox, “Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 41, no. 9 (2003): 1429-1437, DOI: 10.1016/S0735-1097(03)00184-0, PMID: 12742277.
  3. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention FastStats: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm
  4. Dementia is the Most Costly Disease in America, Alzheimer’s Association: http://act.alz.org/site/MessageViewer?dlv_id=101541&em_id=80007.0
  5. Michael D. Hurd, Ph.D., Paco Martorell, Ph.D., Adeline Delavande, Ph.D., Kathleen J. Mullen, Ph.D., and Kenneth M. Langa, M.D., Ph.D., Monetary Costs of Dementia in the United States. N Engl J Med 2013; 368:1326-1334April 4,2013 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMsa1204629
  6. S. Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000. Executive Summary, part IV.
  7. Delta Dental Oral Health and Well-Being Survey of 2014. “Survey Finds Shortcomings in Americans’ Dental Health Habits,” Delta Dental, Sept. 23, 2014, https://www.deltadental.com/Public/NewsMedia/NewsReleaseDentalSurveyFindsShortcomings_201409.jsp.
  8. National Call to Action to Promote Oral Health, Richard Carmona, MD. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Rockville, MD. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. NIH Publication No. 03-5303, http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/DataStatistics/SurgeonGeneral/NaitonalCalltoAction/nationalcalltoaction.htm
  9. “Diabetes? Heart Disease? Osteoporosis? Your Dentist May Know Before You Do,” Delta Dental, September 2014, https://www.deltadentalins.com/oral_health/dentists-detect.html. No. 03-5303, Spring 2003.