Menu Close

Stop America’s #1 Killer!

By Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD


  1. Aleo, J. (1981) Diabetes and periodontal disease. Possible role of vitamin C deficiency: and Hypothesis. Journal of Periodontology 52(5):251-254.
  2. Aljaroudi, W., A. Halabi, and R. Harrington (2005) Platelet inhibitor therapy for patients with cardiovascular disease: looking toward the future. Current Hematology Reports 4(5):397-404.
  3. Alouf, J. (1981) [Thiol-dependent cytolytic bacterial toxins: streptolysin O and prominent toxins]. French Archives de 1’Institut Pasteur de Tunis 58(3):355-373.
  4. Appels, A., P. Mulder, M. van’t Hof, C. Jenkins, J. van Houtem, and F. Tan (1987) A prospective study of the Jenkins Activity Survey as a risk indicator for coronary heart disease in the Netherlands. Journal of Chronic Diseases 40(10):959-965.
  5. Bates, C., C. Walmsley, A. Prentice, and S. Finch (1998) Does vitamin C reduce blood pressure? Results of a large study of people aged 65 or older. Journal of Hypertension 16(7):925-932.
  6. Beck, J., J. Pankow, H. Tyroler, and S. Offenbacher (1999) Dental infections and atherosclerosis. American Heart Journal 138(5 Pt 2):S528-533.
  7. Becker, A., O. de Boer, and A. van der Wal (2001) The role of inflammation and infection in coronary heart disease. Annual Review of Medicine 52:289-297.
  8. Belting, C., J. Hinkler, and C. Dummett (1964) influence of diabetes mellitus on the severity of periodontal disease. Journal of Periodontology 35:476.
  9. Blum, A., V. Hadas, M. Burke, I. Yust, and A. Kessler (2005) Viral load of the human immunodeficiency virus could be an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction. Clinical Cardiology 28(3):149-153.
  10. Carney, R., K. Freedland, R. Veith, and A. Jaffe (1999) Can treating depression reduce mortality after an acute myocardial infarction? Psychosomatic Medicine 61(5): 665-675
  11. Clejan, S., S. Japa, C. Clemetson, S. Hasabnis, O. David, and J. Talano (2002) Blood histamine is associated with coronary artery disease, cardiac events and severity of inflammation and atherosclerosis. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 6(4):583-592.
  12. Clemetson, C. (1999) The role of histamine in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Medical Hypotheses 52(1):1-8.
  13. Cohen, H., S. Madhavan, and M. Alderman (2001) History of treatment for depression: risk factor for myocardial infarction in hypertensive patients. Psychosomatic Medicine 63(2):203-209.
  14. Cohen, M. (1955) The effect of large doses of ascorbic acid on gingival tissue at puberty. Journal of Dental Research 34(Abstract):750.
  15. Corti, R., R. Hutter, J. Badimon, and V. Fuster (2004) Evolving concepts in the triad of atherosclerosis, inflammation and thrombosis. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis 17(1):35-44.
  16. Correia, M. and W. Haynes (2004) Leptin, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 13(2):215-223.
  17. Dandona, P., A. Aljada, P. Mohanty, H. Ghanim, W. Hamouda, E. Assian, and S. Ahmad (2001) Insulin inhibits intranuclear nuclear factor kappaB and stimulates IkappaB in mononuclear cells in obese subjects: evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect? The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 86(7):3257-3265.
  18. Doria, A., Y. Sherer, P. Meroni, and Y. Shoenfeld (2005) Inflammation and accelerated atherosclerosis: basic mechanisms. Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America 31(2):355-362, viii.
  19. Emingi, G., E. Buduneli, A. Aliyev, A. Akilli, and G. Atilla (2000) Association between periodontal disease and acute myocardial infarction. Journal of Periodontology 71(12):1882-1886.
  20. Galley, H., J. Thornton, P. Howdle, B. Walker, and N. Webster (1997) Combination oral antioxidant supplementation reduces blood pressure. Clinical Science 92(4):361-365.
  21. Hajishengallis, G., A. Sharma, M. Russell, and R. Genco (2002) Interactions of oral pathogens with toll-like receptors: possible role in atherosclerosis. Annals of Periodontology 7(1):72-78.
  22. Hofmann, M., E. Lalla, Y. Lu, M. Gleason, B. Wolf, N. Tanji, L. Ferran, Jr., B. Kohl, V. Rao, W. Kisiel, D. Stern, and A. Schmidt (2001) Hyperhomocysteinemia enhances vascular inflammation and accelerates atherosclerosis in a murine model. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 107(6):675-683.
  23. Hollander, W., D. Kramsch, C. Franzblau, J. Paddock, and M. Colombo (1974) Suppression fo atheromatous fibrous plaque formation by antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory drugs. Circulation Research 34 & 35(Suppl I):131-141.
  24. Huggins, H. (1993) It’s All In Your Head. The Link Between Mercury Amalgams and Illness. Garden City Park, NT: Avery Publishing Group, Inc.
  25. Huggins, H. and T. Levy (1999) Uninformed Consent: The Hidden Dangers in Dental Care. Charlottesville, VA: Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc.
  26. Inoue, K., Y. Kobayashi, H. Hanamura, and S. Toyokawa (2005) Association of periodontitis with increased white blood cell count and blood pressure. Blood Pressure 14(1):53-58.
  27. Karjalainen, S., E. Soderling, L. Sewon, H. Lapinleimu, and O. Simell (2001) A prospective study on sucrose consumption, visible plaque and caries in children from 3 to 6 years of age. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 29(2):136-142.
  28. Langlois, M., D. Duprez, J. Delanghe, M. de Buyzere, and D. Clement. (2201) Serum vitamin C concentration is low in peripheral arterial disease and is associated with inflammation and severity of atherosclerosis. Circulation 103(14):1863-1868.
  29. Levy, T., and H. Huggins (1996) Routine dental extractions routinely produce cavitations. Journal of Advancement in Medicine 9(4):235-249.
  30. Licastro, F., G. Candore, D. Lio, E. Porcellini, G. Colonna-Romano, C. Franceschi, and C. Caruso (2005) Innate immunity and inflammation in ageing: a key for understanding age-related diseases. Immunity & Ageing 2:8.
  31. MacCallum, P. (2005) Markers of hemostasis and systemic inflammation in heart disease and atherosclerosis in smoker. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 2(1):34-43.
  32. Majno, G. and G. Palade (1961) Studies on inflammation. I. The effect of histamine and serotonin on vascular permeability: an electron microscopic study. The Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology 11:571-605.
  33. Majano, G., G. Palade, and G. Schoefl (1961) Studies on inflammation. II. The site of action of histamine and serotonin along the vascular tree: a topographic study. The Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology 11:607-626.
  34. Meinig, G. (1996) Root Canal Cover-Up. Ojai, CA: Bion Publishing.
  35. Morrow, D. and P. Ridker (2000) C-reactive protein, inflammation, and coronary risk. Medical Clinics of North America 84(1):149-161, ix.
  36. Orio, F., S. Palomba, T. Cascella, S. Di Biase, F. Manguso, L. Tauchmanova, L. Nardo, D. Labella, S. Savastano, T. Russo, F. Zullo, A, Colao, and G. Lombardi (2005) The increase of leukocytes as a new putative marker of low-grade chronic inflammation and early cardiovascular risk in polycystic ovary syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90(1):2-5.
  37. Pekkala, E., E. Hietala, M. Puukka, and M. Larmas (2000) Effects of a high sucrose diet and intragastric sucrose feeding on the dentinogenesis, dental caries, mineral excretion of the young rat. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 58(4):155-159.
  38. Pleiner, J., F. Mittermayer, G. Schaller, C. Marsik, R. MacAllister, and M. Wolzt (2003) Inflammation-induced vasoconstrictor hyporeactivity is caused by oxidative stress. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 42(9):1656-1662.
  39. Shannon, I. (1973) Significant correlations between gingival scores and ascorbic acid status. Journal of Dental Research 52(2):394.
  40. Soder, P., B. Soder, J. Nowak, and T. Jogestrand (2005) Early carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with periodontal diseases. Stroke: A Journal of Cerebral Circulation 36(6):1195-1200.
  41. Solomon, H., R. Priore, and I. Bross (1968) Cigarette smoking and periodontal disease. Journal of the American Dental Association 77(5):1081-1084.
  42. Sotres, L., G. van Huysen, and H. Gilmore (1969) A histologic study of gingival tissue response to amalgam, silicate and resin restorations. Journal of Periodontology 40(9):543-546.
  43. Stone, I. (1976) Smoker’s scurvy: orthomolecular preventive medicine in cigarette smoking. Orthomolecular Psychiatry 5(1):35-42.
  44. Trivedi, S. and S. Talim (1973) The response of human gingival to restorative materials. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 29(1):73-80.
  45. Turgeon, J., L. LeMay, and R. Cleroux (1972) Periodontal effects of restoring proximal tooth surfaces with amalgam: a clinical evaluation in children. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 38(7):255-256.