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The Case Against Fluoride

By Paul Connett, PhD; James Beck, MD, PhD; H.S. Micklem, DPhil

Summary: In this timely and important book, Connett, Beck, and Micklem carefully investigate the science behind water fluoridation-concluding that endorsements from dental and medical establishments do not mean a public-health measure is effective or safe. At once painstakingly documented and also highly readable, The Case Against Fluoride brings new research to light-including links between fluoride and harm to the brain, bones and endocrine system-arguing that the evidence of fluoridation reducing tooth decay, the very reason it is added to drinking water, is surprisingly weak.

References:

Introduction

  1. R. A. Freeze and J. A. Lehr, The Fluoride Wars: How a Modest Public Health Measure Became America's Longest-Running Political Melodrama (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2009).
  2. E. D. Beltran-Aguilar, B. F. Gooch, A. Kingman, et al., "Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis—United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54, no. 3 (August 26, 2005): 1-44, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5403a1.htm.
  3. World Health Organization, "EURO incl. DMFT for 12-year-olds," WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme, WHO Headquarters Geneva, Oral Health Programme, Malmo University, Sweden, http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/euro.html. Note: WHO has changed and updated its Web site several times over the last five years. The table on this page gives statistics by European country for DMFT (decayed/missing/filled teeth) for twelve-year-olds, as of March 3, 2010.
  4. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid.
  7. R. J. Carton, "Review of the 2006 United States National Research Council Report: Fluoride in Drinking Water," Fluoride 39, no. 3 (2006): 163-72, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/epa/nrc/carton-2006.pdf.
  8. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 10 (n. 4 above).
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Ten Great Public Health Achievements: United States, 1900-1999," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48, no. 12 (April 2, 1999): 241-43, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056796.htm.
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries," Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review 48, no. 41 (October 22,1999): 933-40, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841al.htm. Note: The authors of this report were Scott Tomar and Susan Griffin, as cited in Tomar's curriculum vitae, paper number 27 on page 27, http://fluoridealert.org/re/tomar.scott.cv.ref.27.pdf.
  11. M. W. Easley, "Community Fluoridation in America: The Unprincipled Opposition," 1999, posted on Dental Watch, http://www.dentalwatch.org/fl/opposition.pdf.
  12. American Dental Association, Fluoridation Facts, an update commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of community water fluoridation, 2005, https://www.ada.org/sections/professionalresources/pdfs/fluoridation_facts.pdf.
  13. M. W. Easley, "Community Fluoridation in America: The Unprincipled Opposition," (n. 11 above).

Chapter 1: Poor Medical Practice

  1. American Medical Association, "Patient Physician Relationship Topics: Informed Consent," http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/legal-topics/patient –physician-relationship-topics/informed-consent.shtml.
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General (Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, 2000), http://fluoridealert.org/teeth/surgeon.general-2000.pdf.
  3. Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (Washington, DC: Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy Press, 1997), http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776.
  4. Letter coauthored by Bruce Alberts, president of the National Academy of Sciences, and Kenneth Shine, president of the Institute of Medicine, to Albert W. Burgstahler and others, November 20, 1998, http://www.fluoridation.com/fraud.htm.
  5. Letter from Melinda K. Plaisier, FDA associate commissioner for legislation, to the Honorable Ken Calvert, chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Environment, Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC, December 21, 2000, http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/fda.letter.to.calvert.dec.2000.pdf.
  6. At the Web site of the National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities, http://www.napra.org/, search the National Drug Schedules for "sodium fluoride" or "fluoride and its salts."
  7. K. K. Cheng, I. Chalmers, and T. A. Sheldon, et al., "Adding Fluoride to Water Supplies," British Medical Journal 335, no. 7622 (2007): 699-702.
  8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 50, no. RR14 (August 17, 2001): 1-42, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5014al.htm.
  9. American Dental Association, "Pediatric Journal Highlights Need for Translational Research, Medical-Dental Collaboration to Improve Children's Oral Health," 2009, http://www.ada.org/prof/resources/topics/science pediatric_research.asp.
  10. Letter from John V. Kelly, New Jersey assemblyman, 36th District, to Dr. David Kessler, commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, June 3, 1993, http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/kelly.1993.pdf.
  11. M. S. McDonagh, P. F. Whiting, P. M. Wilson, et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (2000): 855-59, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/855. Note: The full report that this paper summarizes is commonly known as the York Review and is accessible at http://fluoridealert.org/re/york .review.2000.pdf.
  12. E. Baldwin, video interview by Kevin Hurley, in "Professional Perspectives on Water Fluoridation," produced by Michael Connett for Fluoride Action Network, 2009, http://www.fluoridealert.org/profdvd.html.
  13. Letter from Dr. Arvid Carlsson to the South Central Strategic Health Authority, UK, February 2009, http://www.fluoridealert.org/southhampton.html.
  14. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "Pesticides and Food: Why Children May Be Especially Sensitive to Pesticides," 2008, http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/food/pest.htm.
  15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Fluoride. Final Rule," Federal Register 50, no. 220 (November 14, 1985), http://fluoridealert.org/scher/epa-1985.pdf. Note: The MCL established on April 2, 1986 (51 FR 11396), finalizes regulations proposed in the Federal Register of May 14, 1985 (50 FR 20164), http://fluoridealert.org/scher/epa-1985.pdf.
  16. Integrated Risk Information System, "Fluorine (Soluble Fluoride) (CASRN 7782-41¬4)," Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0053.htm.
  17. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  18. American Dental Association, "Interim Guidance on Reconstituted Infant Formula," ADA eGRAM, November 9, 2006, http://www.fluoridealertorg/scher/ada.egram-2006.pdf.
  19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Statement on the 2006 National Research Council Report on Fluoride in Drinking Water," posted originally March 28, 2006, last updated August 24, 2009; http://www.cdc.gov/FLUORIDATION/safety/nrc_report.htm.
  20. E. D. Beltran-Aguilar, B. F. Gooch, A. Kingman, et al., "Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis—United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54, no. 3 (August 26, 2005): 1-44, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5403al.htm.
  21. S. Fisher, "Dangerous Fluoride?" Health Alert report, CBS TV (Atlanta, Georgia), March 8, 2010. See also transcript "Fluoride: Friend or Foe?" by Stephany Fisher, http://www.cbsatlanta.com/health/22776266/detail.html.
  22. "Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion," WHO/HPR/HEP/95.1, First International Conference on Health Promotion, Ottawa, cosponsored by the Canadian Public Health Association, Health and Welfare Canada, and the World Health Organization, November 21, 1986, http://www.who.int/healthpromotion/conferences/previous/ottawa/en/.
  23. Council of Europe, "Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with Regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine: Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine," CETS no. 164 (1997), http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=164&CL=ENG.

Chapter 2: An Inappropriate and Inefficient Practice

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries," Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review 48, no. 41 (October 22, 1999): 933-40, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1.htm. Note: The authors of this report were Scott Tomar and Susan Griffin, as cited in Tomar's curriculam vitae, paper number 27 on page 27, http://fluoridealert.org/re/tomar.scott.cv.ref.27.pdf.
  2. 0. Fejerskov, A. Thylstrup, and M. J. Larsen, "Rational Use of Fluorides in Caries Prevention: A Concept Based on Possible Cariostatic Mechanisms," Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 39, no. 4 (1981): 241-49.
  3. J. P. Carlos, "Comments on Fluoride," Journal of Pedodontics 7, no. 2 (1983): 135-36.
  4. J. S. Wefel, "Effects of Fluoride on Caries Development and Progression Using Intra-Oral Models," Journal of Dental Research 69, special no. (1990): 626-33, 634-36.
  5. D. H. Leverett, "Appropriate Uses of Systemic Fluoride: Considerations for the '90s," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 51, no. 1 (1991): 42-47.
  6. D. T. Zero, R. F. Raubertas, J. Fu, et al., "Fluoride Concentrations in Plaque, Whole Saliva, and Ductal Saliva after Application of Home-Use Topical Fluorides," Journal of Dental Research 71, no. 11 (1992): 1768-75, http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/71/11/1768.
  7. J. Ekstrand, S. J. Fomon, E. E. Ziegler, and S. E. Nelson, "Fluoride Pharmacokinetics in Infancy," Pediatric Research 35, no. 2 (1994): 157-63.
  8. J. D. B. Featherstone, "Prevention and Reversal of Dental Caries: Role of Low-Level Fluoride," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 27, no. 1 (1999): 31-40.
  9. H. Limeback, "A Re-examination of the Pre-eruptive and Post-eruptive Mechanism of the Anti-Caries Effects of Fluoride: Is There Any Caries Benefit from Swallowing Fluoride?" Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 27, no. 1 (1999): 62-71.
  10. B. A. Burt, "The Case for Eliminating the Use of Dietary Fluoride Supplements for Young Children," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 59, no. 4 (1999): 260-74.
  11. S. M. Adair, "Overview of the History and Current Status of Fluoride Supplementation Schedules," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 59, no. 4 (1999): 252-58.
  12. D. Locker, Benefits and Risks of Water Fluoridation: An Update of the 1996 Federal Provincial Sub-committee Report, prepared under contract for Public Health Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada (Ottawa: Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, 1999), http://fluoridealert.org/re/locker.1999.pdf.
  13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999" (n. 1 above).
  14. M. S. McDonagh, P. F. Whiting, P. M. Wilson, et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (2000): 855-59, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/contentifull/321/7265/855. Note: The full report that this paper summarizes is commonly known as the York Review and is accessible at http://fluoridealert.org/re/york.review.2000.pdf.
  15. D. Carnall, "Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (October 7, 2000): 904. Carnall's statement appeared on the British Medical Journal Web site on the day (October 7, 2000) the journal published a review of the York Report (n. 14 above), http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/904/a.
  16. Michael Connett's video interview of Dr. Arvid Carlsson, October 2005. This interview is included on the DVD Professional Perspectives on Water Fluoridation, produced by Fluoride Action Network, http://fluoridealert.org/profdvd.html.
  17. J. Colquhoun, "Education and Fluoridation in New Zealand: An Historical Study,” Ph.D. diss., University of Auckland, New Zealand, 1987.
  18. David L. Biles, "When It Comes to Fluoride, Education Is Better Than Medication," Santa Cruz Sentinel (California), March 7, 2010, http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/ci_14528191?source=most_emailed.
  19. Ibid.
  20. CNN-TV, "Diabetes Cases Could Double by 2034," news broadcast, November 27, 2009, http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0911/27/cnr.02.html.

Chapter 3: The Chemicals Used

  1. Florida Institute of Phosphate Research, "Public & Environmental Health," 2003-2004, http://www.fipr.state.fl.us/research-area-public-health.htm.
  2. Letter from Rebecca Hanmer, deputy assistant administrator for water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, to Leslie A. Russell, D.M.D, March 30, 1983, http://fluoridealert.org/re/hanmer1983.pdf.
  3. J. W. Hirzy testimony on behalf of the National Treasury Employees Union Chapter 280, before the Subcommittee on Wildlife, Fisheries and Drinking Water, U.S. Senate, Washington, DC, June 29, 2000. Video of testimony, "EPA Union Calls for Moratorium on Water Fluoridation," at http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=8903910725020792574#; transcript of testimony at http://www.fluoridealert.org/testimony.htm.
  4. Department of Human Services, Water Fluoridation: Questions and Answers, pamphlet distributed by the Department of Human Services, Victoria, Australia, February 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/re/australia.2009.victoria.pamphlet.pdf.
  5. Letter from Stan Hazan, general manager, National Sanitation Foundation International's Drinking Water Additives Certification Program, to Ken Calvert, chair-man, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives, July 7, 2000, http://www.keepers-of-the-well.org/gov_resp _pdfs/NSF_response.pdf.
  6. C. Wang, D. B. Smith, and G. M. Huntley, "Treatment Chemicals Contribute to Arsenic Levels," Opflow (a journal of the American Water Works Association), October 2000.
  7. R. D. Masters and M. J. Coplan, "Water Treatment with Silicofluorides and Lead Toxicity," International Journal of Environmental Studies 56, no. 4 (1999): 435-49.
  8. R. D. Masters, M. J. Coplan, B. T Hone, and J. E. Dykes, "Association of Silicofluoride Treated Water with Elevated Blood Lead," Neurotoxicology 21, no. 6 (2000): 1091-99.
  9. E. T. Urbansky and M. R. Schock, "Can Fluoridation Affect Lead (II) in Potable Water? Hexafluorosilicate and Fluoride Equilibria in Aqueous Solution," International Journal of Environmental Studies 57, no. 5 (2004 597-637.
  10. E. T. Urbansky, "Fate of Fluorosilicate Drinking Water Additives," Chemical Reviews 102, no. 8 (2002): 2837-54.
  11. W. F. Finney, E. Wilson, A. Callender, et al., "Reexamination of Hexafluorosilicate Hydrolysis by Fluoride NMR and pH Measurement," Environmental Science & Technology 40, no. 8 (2006): 2572-77.
  12. R. P. Maas, S. C. Patch, A. M. Christian, and M. J. Coplan, "Effects of Fluoridation and Disinfection Agent Combinations on Lead Leaching from Leaded-Brass Parts," Neurotoxicology 28, no. 5 (2007): 1023-31.
  13. R. M. M. Sawan, G. A. S. Leite, M. C. P. Saraiva, et al., "Fluoride Increases Lead Concentrations in Whole Blood and in Calcified Tissues from Lead-Exposed Rats," Toxicology 271, no. 1-2 (2010): 21-66.
  14. Ibid.
  15. R. D. Masters and M. J. Coplan, "Water Treatment with Silicofluorides and Lead Toxicity" (n. 7 above).
  16. R. D. Masters et al., "Association of Silicofluoride Treated Water with Elevated Blood Lead" (n. 8 above).

Chapter 4: Who Is in Charge?

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Division of Oral Health," list of personnel, March 2008, http://www.fluoridealert.org/baiky3.html.
  2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluorine (Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, September 2003), http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/ tpll.pdf.
  3. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  4. R. J. Carton, "Review of the 2006 United States National Research Council Report: Fluoride in Drinking Water," Fluoride 39, no. 3 (2006): 163-72, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/epa/nrc/carton-2006.pdf.
  5. The deposition of Stan Hazan was taken in a San Diego County Superior Court case titled Macy v. City of Escondido, case no. GIN015280, on March 9, 2004. The lawsuit sought to have the addition of hexafluorosilicic acid (HFSA) to the water declared unconstitutional under California law. The lawsuit was dismissed, and the dismissal was affirmed on appeal by the Fourth District Court of Appeals. The deposition is online at http://fluoridealert.org/re/hazan-2004.deposition.pdf.
  6. NSF Joint Committee on Drinking Water Additives, Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals—Health Effects, NSF International Standard/American National Standard NSF/ANSI 60-2009 (Ann Arbor, MI: NSF International, 2009).

Chapter 5: An Experimental Program

  1. National Health and Medical Research Council, The Effectiveness of Water Fluoridation (Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1991), 142.
  2. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?recordid=11571.
  3. D. Fagin, "Second Thoughts on Fluoride," Scientific American 298, no. 1 (January 2008): 74-81; excerpts at http://www.fluoridealert.org/sc.am.jan.2008.html.
  4. M. S. McDonagh, P. F. Whiting, P. M. Wilson, et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (2000): 855-59, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/855. Note: The full report that this paper summarizes is commonly known as the York Review and is accessible at http://fluoridealert.org/re/york .review.2000.pdf.
  5. Open letter from Professor Trevor Sheldon, DSc, FMedSci., of the Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Heslington, York, UK, January 3, 2001, http://www.appgaforg.uk/archive/archive_letter_shel/.
  6. "Regulations and Ethical Guidelines: Directives for Human Experimentation," Office of Human Subjects Research, National Institutes of Health, http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/nuremberg.html. Reprinted from Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law, no. 10 (1949): 181-82.
  7. UK Water Act, "The Drinking Water Inspectorate. Fluoridation of Water Supplies": "90 (2) The Secretary of State may also, with the consent of the Treasury, agree to indemnify any licensed water supplier in respect of liabilities which it may incur—(a) In supplying water to which fluoride has been added by a water undertaker by virtue of any such arrangements . . . " 2003, http://www.opsi.gov.uk/2003/37/ section/58.
  8. Letter from Dr. B. Havlik, DrSc, Ministerstvo Zdravotnictvi Ceske Republiky, to A. R. Smith and C. A. Smith, England, October 14, 1999, http://www.fluoridealert.org/czech.jpeg.
  9. World Health Organization, "EURO incl. DMFT for 12-year-olds," WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme, WHO Headquarters Geneva, Oral Health Programme (NPH), WHO Collaborating Centre, Malmo University, Sweden, http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/euro.html. Last update March 3, 2010. Note: WHO has changed and updated its Web site several times over the last five years. This online site gives statistics by European country for DMFT (decayed/missing/filled teeth) for twelve-year-olds; http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/euro.html.
  10. C. Neurath, "Tooth Decay Trends for 12 Year Olds in Nonfluoridated and Fluoridated Countries," graph in Fluoride &Tooth Decay (Caries) section at Fluoride Action Network Web site, 2004, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/teeth/caries/.
  11. L. Seppä, S. Kärkkainen, and H. Hausen, "Caries Trends 1992-1998 in Two Low-Fluoride Finnish Towns Formerly with and without Fluoridation," Caries Research 34, no. 6 (2000): 462-68.
  12. W. Kunzel, T Fischer, R. Lorenz, and S. Bruhmann, "Decline in Caries Prevalence after the Cessation of Water Fluoridation in Former East Germany," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 28, no. 5 (2000): 382-89.
  13. W. Kunzel and T Fischer, "Caries Prevalence after Cessation of Water Fluoridation in La Salud, Cuba," Caries Research 34, no. 1 (2000): 20-25.
  14. G. Maupomé, D. C. Clark, S. M. Levy, and J. Berkowitz, "Patterns of Dental Caries Following the Cessation of Water Fluoridation," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 29, no. 1 (2001): 37-47.
  15. American Dental Association, Fluoridation Facts, an update commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of community water fluoridation, 2005, https://www.ada.org/sections/professionalresources/pdfs/fluoridation_facts.pdf.

Chapter 6: Fluoridation and Tooth Decay

  1. M. S. McDonagh, R E Whiting, P. M. Wilson, et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (2000): 855-59, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/855. Note: The full report that this paper summarizes is commonly known as the York Review and is accessible at http://fluoridealert.org/re/york .review.2000.pdf.
  2. H. T Dean, F. A. Arnold Jr., and E. Elvove, "Domestic Water and Dental Caries. V. Additional Studies of the Relation of Fluoride Domestic Waters to Dental Caries Experience in 4425 White Children, age 12-14 years, of 13 Cities in 4 States," Public Health Reports 57, no. 32 (1942): 1155-79, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC1968063/pdf/pubhealthreporig01481-0001.pdf.
  3. H. T. Dean, F. A. Arnold Jr., and E. Elvove, "Domestic Water and Dental Caries. II. A Study of 2,832 White Children, Aged 12 to 14 Years, of 8 Suburban Chicago Communities, Including Lactobacillus Acidophilus Studies of 1,761 Children," Public Health Reports 56 (1941): 761-92.
  4. World Health Organization, "EURO incl. DMFT for 12-Year-Olds," WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme, Oral Health Programme (NPH), WHO Collaborating Centre, Malmo University, Sweden, http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/euro.html. Last update March 3, 2010. Note: WHO has changed and updated its Web site several times over the last five years. This online site gives statistics by European country for DMFT (decayed/missing/filled teeth) for twelve-year-olds; http://www.whocollab.od.mah.se/euro.html.
  5. C. Neurath, "Tooth Decay Trends for 12 Year Olds in Nonfluoridated and Fluoridated Countries," graph in Fluoride &Tooth Decay (Caries) section at Fluoride Action Network Web site, 2004, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/teeth/caries/.
  6. K. K. Cheng, I. Chalmers, and T A. Sheldon, "Adding Fluoride to Water Supplies," British Medical Journal 335, no. 7622 (2007): 699-702.
  7. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Ten Great Public Health Achievements: United States, 1900-1999," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48, no. 12 (April 2, 1999): 241-43, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056796.htm.
  8. C. Neurath, "Tooth Decay Trends for 12 Year Olds in Nonfluoridated and Fluoridated Countries," Fluoride 38, no. 4 (2005): 324-25, at http://fluoridealert.org/re/neurath-2005.pdf.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries," Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review 48, no. 41 (October 22,1999): 933-40, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1.htm. Note: The authors of this report were Scott Tomar and Susan Griffin, as cited in Tomar's curriculum vitae, paper number 27 on page 27, http://fluoridealert.org/re/tomar.scott.cv.ref.27.pdf.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 190°¬1999," 937 (n. 9 above).
  12. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, "The Oral Health of Children: A Portrait of States and the Nation 2005. Condition of Children's Teeth," based on data from the National Survey of Children's Health 2003, Health Resources and Services Administration, Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Rockville, Maryland, http://mchb.hrsa.gov/oralhealth/portrait/lcct.htm.
  13. B. Osmunson, "Water Fluoridation Intervention: Dentistry's Crown Jewel or Dark Hour?" Fluoride 40, no. 4 (2007): 214-21, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/404/files/Fj2007_v40_n4_p214-221.pdf.
  14. J. V. Kumar, D. L. Altshul, T L. Cooke, and E. L. Green, "Oral Health Status of Third Grade Children: New York State Oral Health Surveillance System," December 15,2005, http://fluoridealert.org/re/kumar-2005.nys.report.pdf.
  15. Based on analysis performed by Michael Connett for Fluoride Action Network.
  16. B. Osmunson, "Water Fluoridation Intervention" (n. 13 above).
  17. Based on analysis performed by Michael Connett for Fluoride Action Network.
  18. J. V. Kumar et al., "Oral Health Status of Third Grade Children: New York State Oral Health Surveillance System" (n. 14 above).
  19. Based on analysis performed by Michael Cornett for Fluoride Action Network.
  20. J. V. Kumar et al., "Oral Health Status of Third Grade Children: New York State Oral Health Surveillance System" (n. 14 above).
  21. M. Eisenstadt, "How Fluoride Makes a Difference in CNY; Cayuga County Lacks Fluoridation, and Has a Higher Rate of Cavities," The Post-Standard (Syracuse, New York), December 27, 2005, article begins on page Al.
  22. J. Colquhoun, "Why I Changed My Mind About Fluoridation," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41 (1997): 29-44. Reprinted, with permission, in Fluoride 31, no. 2 (1998): 103-18, http://www.fluoride-joumalcom/98-31-2/312103.htm.
  23. American Dental Association, "Fluoridation Facts," an update commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of community water fluoridation, 2005, https://www.ada.org/sections/professionalresources/pdfs/fluoridation_facts.pdf.
  24. D. H. Retief, E. L. Bradley, E H. Barbakow, et al., "Relationships Among Fluoride Concentration in Enamel, Degree of Fluorosis and Caries Incidence in a Community Residing in a High Fluoride Area,” Journal of Oral Pathology 8, no. 4 (1979): 224-36.
  25. J. Mann, M. Tibi, and H. D. Sgan-Cohen, "Fluorosis and Caries Prevalence in a Community Drinking Above-Optimal Fluoridated Water," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 15, no. 5 (1987):293-95.
  26. J. Mann, W. Mahmoud, M. Ernest, et al., "Fluorosis and Dental Caries in 6-8-Year-Old Children in a 5 ppm Fluoride Area," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 18, no. 2 (1990): 77-79.
  27. C. Steelink, "Fluoridation Controversy" (letter), Chemical & Engineering News, July 27,1992,2-3; C. Steelink et al., "Findings and Recommendations on Fluoridation," Citizen's Water Advisory Committee Report, Phoenix, Arizona, June 1992; Bob Carton, ed., Fluoride Report 2, no. 1 (1994): 7.
  28. S. P. S. Teotia and M. Teotia, "Dental Caries: A Disorder of High Fluoride and Low Dietary Calcium Interactions (30 Years of Personal Research)," Fluoride 27, no. 2 (1994): 59-66, http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/teotia-1994.pdf.
  29. S. R. Grobleri, A. J. Louw, and T. J. van Kotze, "Dental Fluorosis and Caries Experience in Relation to Three Different Drinking Water Fluoride Levels in South Africa," International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 11, no. 5 (2001): 372-79.
  30. A. K. Awadia, J. M. Birkeland, 0. Haugejorden, and K. Bjorvatn, "Caries Experience and Caries Predictors—A Study of Tanzanian Children Consuming Drinking Water with Different Fluoride Concentrations," Clinical Oral Investigations 6, no. 2 (2002): 98-103.
  31. L. Ekanayake and W. van der Hoek, "Dental Caries and Developmental Defects of Enamel in Relation to Fluoride Levels in Drinking Water in an Arid Area of Sri Lanka," Caries Research 36, no. 6 (2002): 398-404.
  32. M. Diesendorf, "The Mystery of Declining Tooth Decay," Nature 322, no. 6075 (1986): 125-29.
  33. R. Feltman and G. Kosel, "Prenatal and Postnatal Ingestion of Fluorides—Fourteen Years of Investigation. Final Report," The Journal of Dental Medicine 16 (1961): 190-99.
  34. R. Leroy, K. Bogaerts, E. Lesaffre, and D. Declerck, "The Effect of Fluorides and Caries in Primary Teeth on Permanent Tooth Emergence," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 31, no. 6 (2003): 463-70.
  35. A. Komarek, E. Lesaffre, T Härkänen, et al., "A Bayesian Analysis of Multivariate Doubly-Interval-Censored Dental Data," Biostatistics 6, no. 1 (2005): 145-55.
  36. Video of the debate on water fluoridation that took place between Professor Michael Lennon, chairman of the British Fluoridation Society, and Dr. Paul Connett, director of the Fluoride Action Network, Isle of Man, November 20,2007, http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=82194292805035136&thl=en.
  37. M. Kelly and B. Bruerd, "The Prevalence of Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Two Native American Populations," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 47, no. 2 (1987): 94-97.
  38. G. P. Barnes, W. A. Parker, T C. Lyon Jr., et al., "Ethnicity, Location, Age, and Fluoridation Factors in Baby Bottle Tooth Decay and Caries Prevalence of Head Start Children," Public Health Reports 107, no. 2 (1992): 167-73, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1403626/pdf/pubhealthrep00074-0041.pdf.
  39. P. Weinstein, P. Domoto, K. Wohlers, and M. Koday, "Mexican-American Parents with Children at Risk for Baby Bottle Tooth Decay: Pilot Study at Migrant Farmworkers Clinic," ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children 59, no. 5 (1992): 376-83.
  40. M. M. Von Burg, B. J. Sanders, and J. A. Weddell, "Baby Bottle Tooth Decay: A Concern for All Mothers," Pediatric Nursing 21, no. 6 (1995): 515-19.
  41. C. Febres, E. A. Echeverri, and H. J. Keene, "Parental Awareness, Habits, and Social Factors and Their Relationship to Baby Bottle Tooth Decay," Pediatric Dentistry 19, no. 1 (1997): 22-27.
  42. J. M. Tang, D. S. Altman, D. C. Robertson, et al., "Dental Caries Prevalence and Treatment Levels in Arizona Preschool Children," Public Health Reports 112, no. 4 (1997): 319-29, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=138I972.
  43. M. Blen, S. Narendran, and K. Jones, "Dental Caries in Children Under Age Three Attending a University Clinic," Pediatric Dentistry 21, no. 4 (1999): 261-64.
  44. D. Kong, "City to Launch Battle Against Dental `Crisis,'” Boston Globe (Massachusetts), November 11, 1999.
  45. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900¬1999" (n. 8 above).
  46. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 50, no. RR14 (August 17, 2001):1-42, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5014a1.htm.
  47. V. C. Marinho, "Evidence-Based Effectiveness of Topical Fluorides," Advances in Dental Research 20, no. 1 (2008): 3-7.
  48. M. S. McDonagh et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation" (n. 1 above).
  49. K. A. Eaton and M. J. Carlile, "Toothbrushing Behavior in Europe: Opportunities for Dental Public Health," International Dental Journal 58, no. 5, suppl. 1 (2008): 287-93, http://www.unilever.com/images/sd_Tooth_brush_behaviour_in_Europe_opportunities_for_dental_public_health(International_Dentallournal_2008) _tcm13-160710.pdf.
  50. B. de Liefde, "The Decline of Caries in New Zealand over the Past 40 Years," New Zealand Dental Journal 94, no. 417 (1998): 109-13.

Chapter 7: The Early Evidence Reexamined

  1. H. T Dean, F. A. Arnold Jr., and E. Elvove, "Domestic Water and Dental Caries. II. A Study of 2,832 White Children, Aged 12 to 14 Years, of 8 Suburban Chicago Communities, Including Lactobacillus Acidophilus Studies of 1,761 Children," Public Health Reports 56 (1941): 761-92.
  2. H. T. Dean, F. A. Arnold Jr., and E. Elvove, "Domestic Water and Dental Caries. V. Additional Studies of the Relation of Fluoride Domestic Waters to Dental Caries Experience in 4425 White Children, Age 12-14 Years, of 13 Cities in 4 States," Public Health Reports 57, no. 32 (1942): 1155-79, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/artides/ PMC1968063/pdf/pubhealthreporig01481-0001.pdf
  3. B. C. Nesin, "A Water Supply Perspective of the Fluoridation Discussion," Journal of the Maine Water Utilities Association 32 (1956): 33-47.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries," Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review 48, no. 41 (October 22, 1999): 933-40, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841al.htm. Note: The authors of this report were Scott Tomar and Susan Griffin, as cited in Tomar's curriculum vitae, paper number 27 on page 27, http://fluoridealert.org/re/tomar.scott.cv.ref27.pdf.
  5. H. T Dean et al., "Domestic Water and Dental Caries. V" (n. 2 above).
  6. E B. Exner, "Analytical Commentary on the 1960 Testimony of Dr. H. Trendley Dean in the Suit to Enjoin Fluoridation of Chicago's Water, Part II," in Fluoridation: Its Moral and Political Aspect; A New and Comprehensive Study (New York), The Greater New York Committee Opposed to Fluoridation (undated).
  7. R. Ziegelbecker, "Fluoridated Water and Teeth," Fluoride 14, no. 3 (1981): 123-28, http://fluoridealert.org/re/ziegelbecker-1981.pdf.
  8. Ibid.
  9. R. Ziegelbecker and R. C. Ziegelbecker, "WHO Data on Dental Caries and Natural Fluoride Levels," Fluoride 26, no. 4 (1993): 263-66, http://fluoridealert.org/re/ziegelbecker-1993.pdf.
  10. R. Ziegelbecker, "Comments and Scientific Critique on the Report of the Working Group to Consider Section 3.1 Essential Composition in the Proposed Draft Revised Standard for Infant Formula at (Step 3)," submitted to Codex Alimentarius Commission FAO/WHO, Committee on Nutrition and Foods for Special Dietary Uses (CCNFSDU), March 30, 2003, http://fluoridealert.org/re/ziegelbecker.2003.codex.pdf.
  11. R. Ziegelbecker, "Fluoridated Water and Teeth" (n. 7 above).
  12. T M. De Stefano, "The Fluoridation Research Studies and the General Practitioner," Bulletin of Hudson County Dental Society, February 1954.
  13. P. R. N. Sutton, Fluoridation: Errors and Omissions in Experimental Trials, 1st ed. (Australia: Melbourne University Press, 1959).
  14. P. R. N. Sutton, Fluoridation: Errors and Omissions in Experimental Trials, 2nd ed. (Australia: Melbourne University Press, 1960).
  15. P. R. N. Sutton, The Greatest Fraud: Fluoridation (Lorne, Australia: A Factual Book, Kurunda Pty. Ltd., 1996).
  16. R. Ziegelbecker, "A Critical Review on the Fluorine Caries Problem," Fluoride 3, no. 2 (1970): 71-79, http://fluoridealert.org/re/ziegelbecker-1970.pdf.
  17. Letter from Hubert A. Arnold,PhD, University of California (Davis) to Dr. Ernest Newbrun, Medical Sciences Bldg. 653, San Francisco, California, May 28, 1980, http://www.fluoridealert.org/uc-davis.htm.
  18. P. R. N. Sutton, The Greatest Fraud: Fluoridation (n. 15 above).
  19. D. F. Radusch, "Variability of Diagnosis of Incidence of Dental Caries, Journal of the American Dental Association 28 (1941): 1959-61.
  20. J. D. Boyd and N. E. Wessels, "Epidemiological Studies in Dental Caries. III. The Interpretation of Clinical Data Relating to Caries Advance," American Journal of Public Health and the Nation's Health 41, no. 8, pt. 1 (1951): 976-85, http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/41/8_Pt_1/976.
  21. P. R. N. Sutton, Fluoridation: Errors and Omissions in Experimental Trials, 1st ed. (n. 13 above).
  22. P. R. N. Sutton, Fluoridation: Errors and Omissions in Experimental Trials, 2nd ed. (n. 14 above).
  23. P. R. N. Sutton, The Greatest Fraud: Fluoridation (n. 15 above).
  24. Letter from John Forst, MD, New York State Education Department, to Dr. James Kerwin of the New Jersey Department of Health, October 26, 1954.
  25. J. V. Kumar and E. L. Green, "Recommendations for Fluoride Use in Children. A Review," The New York State Dental Journal 64, no. 2 (1998): 40-47.
  26. J. V. Kumar, P. H. Swango, L L Lininger, et al., "Changes in Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries in Newburgh and Kingston, New York," American Journal of Public Health 88, no. 12 (1998): 1866-70, http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/88/12/1866.
  27. J. V. Kumar and E. L. Green, "Recommendations for Fluoride Use in Children. A Review" (n. 25 above.)
  28. Ibid.
  29. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004), 83-87.
  30. J. Colquhoun and R. Mann, "The Hastings Fluoridation Experiment: Science or Swindle?" The Ecologist 16, no. 6 (1986): 243-48.
  31. J. Colquhoun, "Education and Fluoridation in New Zealand: An Historical Study," Ph.D. diss., University of Auckland, New Zealand, 1987.
  32. J. Colquhoun and B. Wilson, "The Lost Control and Other Mysteries: Further Revelations on New Zealand's Fluoridation Trial," Accountability in Research 6, no. 4 (1999): 373-94.
  33. T G. Ludwig, "The Hastings Fluoridation Project I. Dental Effects Between 1954 and 1957," The New Zealand Dental Journal 54 (1958): 165-72.
  34. T G. Ludwig, "The Hastings Fluoridation Project II. Dental Effects Between 1954 and 1959," The New Zealand Dental Journal 55 (1959): 176-79.
  35. T G. Ludwig, "The Hastings Fluoridation Project III. Dental Effects Between 1954 and 1961," The New Zealand Dental Journal 58 (1962): 22-24.
  36. T G. Ludwig, "The Hastings Fluoridation Project IV. Dental Effects Between 1954 and 1963," The New Zealand Dental Journal 59 (1963): 298-301.
  37. T. G. Ludwig, "The Hastings Fluoridation Project V. Dental Effects Between 1954 and 1964," The New Zealand Dental Journal 61 (1965): 175-79.
  38. T. G. Ludwig, "The Hastings Fluoridation Project VI. Dental Effects Between 1954 and 1970," The New Zealand Dental Journal 67 (1971): 155-60.

Chapter 8: Key Modern Studies

  1. Paul Connett's videotape interview with John Colquhoun in Auckland, New Zealand, 1997. Available from Paul Connett, 82 Judson Street, Canton, New York 13617.
  2. J. Colquhoun, "New Evidence on Fluoridation," Social Science & Medicine 19, no. 11 (1984): 1239-46.
  3. J. Colquhoun, "Influence of Social Class and Fluoridation on Child Dental Health," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 13, no. 1 (1985): 37-41.
  4. J. Colquhoun, "Child Dental Health Differences in New Zealand," Community Health Studies 11, no. 2 (1987): 85-90.
  5. J. Colquhoun, "Flawed Foundation: A Re-examination of the Scientific Basis for a Dental Benefit from Fluoridation," Community Health Studies 14, no. 3 (1990): 288-96.
  6. J. Colquhoun, "Possible Explanations for Decline in Tooth Decay in New Zealand," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 20, no. 3 (1992): 161-66.
  7. J. Colquhoun, "Dental Caries Among Children in New Zealand," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 23, no. 6 (1995): 381.
  8. J. Colquhoun, "Education and Fluoridation in New Zealand: An Historical Study," Ph.D. diss., University of Auckland, New Zealand, 1987.
  9. T. S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1962).
  10. J. Colquhoun, "Why I Changed My Mind About Fluoridation," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41 (1997): 29-44. Reprinted, with permission, in Fluoride 31, no. 2 (1998): 103-18, http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-2/312103.htm.
  11. E. Newbrun and H. Horowitz, "Why We Have Not Changed Our Minds about the Safety and Efficacy of Water Fluoridation," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 42, no. 4 (1999): 526-43.
  12. D. H. Leverett, "Fluorides and the Changing Prevalence of Dental Caries," Science 217, no. 4554 (1982): 26-30.
  13. Ibid., 27.
  14. M. Diesendorf, "The Mystery of Declining Tooth Decay," Nature 322, no. 6075 (1986 125-29.
  15. M. Diesendorf, Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy (Sydney: University of New South Wales Press, 2007).
  16. A. S. Gray, "Fluoridation: Time for a New Base Line?" Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 53, no. 10 (1987): 763-65.
  17. J. A. Yiamouyiannis, "Water Fluoridation and Tooth Decay: Results from the 1986-87 National Survey of U.S. Schoolchildren," Fluoride 23, no. 2 (1990): 55-67, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/teeth/caries/nidr-dmft.html.
  18. J. A. Brunelle and J. P. Carlos, "Recent Trends in Dental Caries in U.S. Children and the Effect of Water Fluoridation," Journal of Dental Research 69 (1990): 723-27.
  19. J. A. Yiamouyiannis, Fluoride: The Aging Factor, 3rd ed. (Delaware, Ohio: Health Action Press, 1993). Note: First edition published in 1983, and second edition in 1986.
  20. J. A. Brunelle and J. P. Carlos, "Recent Trends in Dental Caries in U.S. Children and the Effect of Water Fluoridation" (n. 22 above).
  21. J. A. Yiamouyiannis, "Water Fluoridation and Tooth Decay" (n. 21 above).
  22. J. A. Brunelle and J. P. Carlos, "Recent Trends in Dental Caries in U.S. Children and the Effect of Water Fluoridation" (n. 22 above).
  23. A. J. Spencer, G. D. Slade and M. Davies, "Water Fluoridation in Australia," Community Dental Health 13, suppl. 2 (1996): 27-37.
  24. J. A. Brunelle and J. P. Carlos, "Recent Trends in Dental Caries in U.S. Children and the Effect of Water Fluoridation" (n. 22 above).
  25. B. de Liefde, "The Decline of Caries in New Zealand over Past 40 Years," New Zealand Dental Journal 94, no. 417 (1998): 109-13.
  26. D. Locker, Benefits and Risks of Water Fluoridation: An Update of the 1996 Federal-Provincial Sub-committee Report, prepared under contract for Public Health Branch, Ontario Ministry of Health First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Health Canada (Ottawa: Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care, 1999), http://fluoridealert.org/re/locker.1999.pdf.
  27. H. Cohen and D. Locker, "The Science and Ethics of Water Fluoridation," Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 67, no. 10 (2001): 578-80.
  28. J. M. Armfield and A. J. Spencer, "Consumption of Nonpublic Water: Implications for Children's Caries Experience," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 32, no. 4 (2004): 283-96.
  29. J. Spencer, "Dental Research on Fluoridation Misused," Fluoride 39, no. 4 (2006): 326-27, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/394/files/FJ2006 v39_n4_p326-330.pdf.
  30. M. Diesendorf, "Response to John Spencer's Obfuscation of the Results of His Own Paper," Fluoride 39, no. 4 (2006): 327-30. Letter follows Spencer's at http://www.fluorideresearch.org/394/files/FJ2006 v39_n4_p326-330.pdf.
  31. A. Komarek, E. Lesaffre, T Härkänen, et al., "A Bayesian Analysis of Multivariate Doubly-Interval-Censored Dental Data," Biostatistics 6, no. 1 (2005): 145-55.
  32. E. Lesaffre, "On the Spatial Distribution of Caries in Primary Teeth" (undated), http:// www.statucl.ac.beaSpersonnel/lambert/biostat2000/lesaffre.html.
  33. A. Komarek et al., "A Bayesian Analysis of Multivariate Doubly-Interval-Censored Dental Data" (n. 37 above).
  34. J. Vanobbergen, L. Martens, E. Lesaffre, et al. 2001, "Assessing Risk Indicators for Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 29, no. 6 (2001): 424-34.
  35. A. Komarek et al., "A Bayesian Analysis of Multivariate Doubly-Interval-Censored Dental Data" (n. 37 above).
  36. G. Pizzo, M. R. Piscopo, I. Pizzo, and G. Giuliana, "Community Water Fluoridation and Caries Prevention: A Critical Review," Clinical Oral Investigations 11, no. 3 (2007): 189-93.
  37. J. J. Warren, S. M. Levy, B. Broffitt, et al., "Considerations on Optimal Fluoride Intake Using Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Outcomes-A Longitudinal Study," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 69, no. 2 (2009): 111-15.
  38. E. Solvig, "Special Report: Cincinnati's Dental Crisis," The Enquirer (Cincinnati, Ohio), October 6, 2002, http://www.enquirer.com/editions/2002/10/96/loc_special_report.html.
  39. D. Kong, "City to Launch Battle Against Dental 'Crisis,'" Boston Globe (Massachusetts), 'November 11, 1999.
  40. R. Slate, "State Must Fund Plan to Provide Oral Health Care for the Poor," New Haven Register (Connecticut), May 5, 2005.
  41. V. Law, "Sink Your Teeth into Health Care," Pittsburgh Tribune-Review (Pennsylvania), February 13, 2005, http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/s_303168.html.
  42. S. Morse, "Bottled Water: Just Add Fluoride," Washington Post, March 5, 2002.
  43. S. Voss, "Kentucky's Dental Disaster Begins Before Kindergarten," Lexington Herald-Leader (Kentucky), November 9, 2008, http://www.kentucky.com/181/story/585931.html.
  44. U. Gerth, "Nothing to Smile About," Fosters Daily Democrat (Connecticut), May 22, 2005.
  45. B. A. Burt, J. L. Kolker, A. M. Sandretto, et al., "Dietary Patterns Related to Caries in a Low-income Adult Population," Caries Research 40, no. 6 (2006): 473-80.
  46. J. Kozol, Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools (New York Crown Publishers, Inc., 1991).
  47. E. Connett, "The Failure of the Fluoridation Experiment-Part 2. Oral Health Reports from the 50 States & District of Columbia," Fluoride Action Network, 2010, http://fluoridealert.org/teeth.state.reports.html.

Chapter 9: The Great Fluoridation Gamble, 1930-1950

  1. D. R. McNeil, The Fight for Fluoridation (New York Oxford University Press, 1957).
  2. R. R. Harris, Dental Science in a New Age: A History of the National Institute of Dental Research (Maryland: Montrose Press, 1989).
  3. F. B. Exner and G. L. Waldbott, The American Fluoridation Experiment (New York Devin-Adair, 1957).
  4. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception (New York Seven Stories Press, 2004).
  5. H. Velu, "Dystrophie Dentaire des Mammifères des Zones Phosphatées (Darmous) et Fluorose Chronique," Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales 108 (1931): 750-52.
  6. H. V. Churchill, "The Occurrence of Fluorides in Some Waters of the United States," Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 23, no. 9 (1931): 996-98. Reprinted in The Journal of Dental Research 12 (1932): 141-48, http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/12/1/141.
  7. M. 0. Smith, E. M. Lantz, and H. V. Smith, "The Cause of Mottled Enamel, a Defect of Human Teeth," Technical Bulletin No. 32, Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, June 10,1931.
  8. G. J. Cox, "New Knowledge of Fluorine in Relation to Dental Caries," Journal of the American Waterworks Association 31 (1939): 1926-30.
  9. H. Cristiani, "Une Nouvelle Maladie. La Fluorose ou Cachexie Fluorique," La Presse Médicale 34, no. 30 (1926): 469-70. Reviewed in "Fluorine Poisoning," Canadian Medical Association Journal 16, no. 8 (1926): 970.
  10. G. V. Black and F. S. McKay, "An Investigation of Mottled Teeth: An Endemic Developmental Imperfection of the Enamel of the Teeth, Heretofore Unknown in the Literature of Dentistry," Dental Cosmos 58 (1916): 129-56,477-84,627-44,781-92,894-904.
  11. F. S. McKay, "The Relation of Mottled Enamel to Caries," Journal of the American Dental Association 15, no. 8 (1928):1429-37.
  12. H. Cristiani, "Alteration de la Glande Thyroide dans L'intoxication Fluorée," Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales 103 (1930): 554-56.
  13. H. Cristiani, "Le Fluor des Os dans 1'Intoxication Fluorique," Annales d'Hygiene Publique 8 (1930): 309-16.
  14. H. Velu, "Dystrophie Dentaire des Mammifères des Zones Phosphatées (Darmous) et Fluorose Chronique" (n. 5 above).
  15. H. V. Churchill, "The Occurrence of Fluorides in Some Waters of the United States" (n. 6 above).
  16. M. 0. Smith et al., "The-Cause of Mottled Enamel, a Defect of Human Teeth" (n. 7 above).
  17. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 39 (n. 4 above).
  18. H. T Dean, "Distribution of Mottled Enamel in the United States," Public Health Reports 48, no. 25 (1933): 703-34, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2016232/pdf/pubhealthreporig02047-0004.pdf.
  19. P. E Moeller and S. V. Gudjonsson, "Massive Fluorosis of Bones and Ligaments," Acta Radiologica 13 (1932): 269-94.
  20. F. DeEds, "Chronic Fluorine Intoxication. A Review," Medicine (Baltimore) 12, no. 1 (1933): 1-60.
  21. F. J. McClure, "A Review of Fluorine and Its Physiological Effects," Physiological Reviews 13, no. 3 (1933): 277-300.
  22. K. Roholm, Fluorine Intoxication: A Clinical-Hygienic Study, with a Review of the Literature and Some Experimental Investigations (Copenhagen: Nyt Nordisk Forlag; London: H. K. Lewis and Co. Ltd., 1937), http://www.scribd.com/doc/11757791/Fluorine-Intoxication-Kaj-Roholm-1937-Copenhagen.
  23. H. E. Shortt, G. R. McRobert, T. W. Barnard, and A. S. M. Nayar, "Endemic Fluorosis in the Madras Presidency," Indian Journal of Medical Research 25, no. 2 (1937): 553-68.
  24. H. T Dean, "A Review of Fluorine Intoxication by Kaj Roholm (1937)," American Journal of Public Health 28 (1938): 1008-9, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1527875/pdf/amjphnation01010-0110b.pdf.
  25. D. G. Steyn, "Water Poisoning in Man and Animal, Together with a Discussion on Urinary Calculi," Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Industry 12 (1939): 167-230.
  26. G. J. Cox, "New Knowledge of Fluorine in Relation to Dental Caries" (n. 8 above).
  27. D. A. Greenwood, "Fluoride Intoxication," Physiological Reviews 20 (1940): 582-616.
  28. C. G. Pandit, T. N. S. Raghavachari, D. S. Rao, and V. Krishnamurti, "Endemic Fluorosis in South India," Indian Journal of Medical Research 28, no. 2 (1940):533-58
  29. H. T Dean, F. A. Arnold Jr., and E. Elvove, "Domestic Water and Dental Caries. II. A Study of 2,832 White Children, Aged 12 to 14 Years, of 8 Suburban Chicago Communities, Including Lactobacillus Acidophilus Studies of 1,761 Children," Public Health Reports 56 (1941): 761-92.
  30. H. T Dean, F. A. Arnold Jr., and E. Elvove, "Domestic Water and Dental Caries. V. Additional Studies of the Relation of Fluoride Domestic Waters to Dental Caries Experience in 4,425 White Children, Aged 12 to 14 Years, of 13 Cities in 4 States," Public Health Reports 57, no. 32 (1942): 1155-79, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmcl articles/PMC1968063/pdf/pubhealthreporig01481-0001.pdf.
  31. F. J. McClure, "Fluoride Domestic Waters and Systemic Effects. I. Relation to Bone-Fracture Experience, Height, and Weight of High School Boys and Young Selectees of the Armed Forces of the United States," Public Health Reports 59, no. 48 (1944): 1543-58, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2017089/pdf/pubhealth reporig01549-0001.pdf.
  32. F. J. McClure and C. A. Kinser, "Fluoride Domestic Waters and Systemic Effects. II. Fluorine Content of Urine in Relation to Fluorine in Drinking Water," Public Health Reports 59, no. 49 (1944): 1575-91, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2017101/pdf/pubhealthreporig01550-0001.pdf.
  33. F. J. McClure, H. H. Mitchell, T. S. Hamilton, and C. A. Kinser, "Balances of Fluorine Ingested from Various Sources in Food and Water by Five Young Men. Excretion of Fluorine through the Skin," The Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 27 (1945): 159.
  34. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, chapter 9 (n. 4 above).
  35. E B. Exner and G. L. Waldbott, The American Fluoridation Experiment, 8 (n. 3 above).
  36. G. J. Cox and H. C. Hodge, "The Toxicity of Fluorides in Relation to Their Use in Dentistry," Journal of the American Dental Association 40 (1950): 440-51.
  37. H. T Dean and F. A. Arnold, "Dental Research and the National Institute of Health: I. Intramural Research," Journal of the American Dental Association 38, no. 1 (1949): 15-19.
  38. H. Velu, "Dystrophie Dentaire des Mammifères des Zones Phosphatées (Darmous) et Fluorose Chronique" (n. 5 above).
  39. H. V. Churchill, "The Occurrence of Fluorides in Some Waters of the United States" (n. 6 above).
  40. M. 0. Smith et al., "The Cause of Mottled Enamel, a Defect of Human Teeth" (n. 7 above).
  41. H. T Dean to Surgeon General, March 4, 1932. In the Ruth Roy Harris Papers, National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine Division, Bethesda, Maryland.
  42. H. T Dean, "Chronic Endemic Dental Fluorosis (Mottled Enamel)," Journal of the American Medical Association 107, no. 16 (1936): 1269-73.
  43. C. H. Boissevain and W. E Drea, "Spectroscopic Determination of Fluorine in Bones, Teeth, and Other Organs in Relation to Fluorine in Drinking Water," Journal of Dental Research 13, no. 6 (1933): 495-500, http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/13/6/495.
  44. H. T Dean and E. Elvove, "Some Epidemiological Aspects of Chronic Endemic Dental Fluorosis," American Journal of Public Health 26 (1936): 567-75, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1562676/pdf/amjphnation01063-0033.pdf.
  45. H. Cristiani, "Le Fluor des Os dans l'Intoxication Fluorique" (n. 13 above).
  46. H. T. Dean, "Chronic Endemic Dental Fluorosis (Mottled Enamel)" (n. 42 above).
  47. Memorandum from H. T. Dean to Assistant Surgeon General L. R. Thompson, May 26, 1936. In the H. T Dean Papers, National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine Division, Bethesda, Maryland.
  48. F. DeEds, "Chronic Fluorine Intoxication. A Review" (n. 20 above).
  49. F. DeEds, "Fluorine in Relation to Bone and Tooth Development," Journal of the American Dental Association 23 (1936): 568-74.
  50. F. J. McClure, "A Review of Fluorine and Its Physiological Effects" (n. 21 above).
  51. D. A. Greenwood, "Fluoride Intoxication" (n. 27 above).
  52. P. E Moeller and S. V. Gudjonsson, "Massive Fluorosis of Bones and Ligaments" (n. 19 above).
  53. K. Roholm, Fluorine Intoxication" (n. 22 above).
  54. H. E. Shortt et al., "Endemic Fluorosis in the Madras Presidency" (n. 23 above).
  55. D. G. Steyn, "Water Poisoning in Man and Animal, Together with a Discussion on Urinary Calculi" (n. 25 above).
  56. C. G. Pandit et al., "Endemic Fluorosis in South India" (n. 28 above).
  57. G. Abbott, "Dangerous Water," Journal of the American Dental Association 27 (1939): 162. Reviewed in Hygeia 17 (1940): 899.
  58. H. Cristiani, "Alteration de la Glande Thyroide dans L'intoxication Fluorée" (n. 12 above).
  59. H. Cristiani, "Le Fluor des Os Dans l'Intoxication Fluorique" (n. 13 above).
  60. G. von Mundy, "Ein newer Weg zur Behandlung der Thyreotoxikose mit Fluorwasserstoffsaure," Medizinische Klinik 21 (1932): 717-19.
  61. E. Spéder and A. Charnot, "Syndromes Osseux du Type Hyperparathyroidien et du Type Hypoparathyroidien, Provoqués par l'Intoxication par les Sivers Sels de Fluor et des Intoxications Minérales Associées," La Presse Médicale 90 (1936): 1754.
  62. K. Kraft, "Beitrage zur Biochemie des Fluors I. Uber den Antagonismus Zwischen Fluor und Thyroxin,". Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie 245 (1937): 58-65.
  63. J. D. Hatfield, C. L. Shrewsbury, F. N. Andrews, and L. P. Doyle, "Iodine-Fluorine Relationship in Sheep Nutrition," Journal of Animal Science 3 (1944): 71-77.
  64. P. H. Phillips and A. R. Lamb, "Histology of Certain Organs and Teeth in Chronic Toxicosis Due to Fluorine," Archives of Pathology 17 (1934): 169.
  65. P. H. Phillips, H. E. English, and E. B. Hart, "The Influence of Sodium Fluoride upon the Basal Metabolism of the Rat under Several Experimental Conditions," The American Journal of Physiology 113 (1935): 441-49.
  66. P. H. Phillips, H. English, and E. B. Hart, "The Augmentation of Fluorosis in the Chick by Feeding Desiccated Thyroid," Journal of Nutrition 10 (1935): 399-407, http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/reprint/10/4/399.
  67. P. H. Phillips, "Further Studies on the Effects of NaF Administration upon the Basal Metabolic Rate of Experimental Animals," The American Journal of Physiology 117 (1936): 155-59, http://ajplegacy.physiology.org/cgi/pdf_extract/117/1/155.
  68. L. Goldemberg, "Action Physiologique des Fluorures," Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales 95 (1926): 1169.
  69. L. Goldemberg, "Traitement de la Maladie de Basedow et de l'Hyperthyroidisme par le Fluor," La Presse Medicale 102 (1930): 1751.
  70. L. Goldemberg, "Comment Agiraient-ils Therapeutiquement les Fluorures dans le Goitre Exopthalmique et dans L'hyperthyroidisme," La Semana Medica 39 (1932): 1659.
  71. W. May, "Antagonismus Zwischen Jod and Fluor im Organismus," Klinische Wochenschrift 14 (1935): 790-92.
  72. W. May, "Behandlung der Hyperthyreosen Einschliesslich des Schweren Genuinen Morbus Basedow mit Fluor," Klinische Wochenschrift 16 (1937): 562-64.
  73. W. Orlowski, "Sur la Valeur Therapeutique du Sang Animal du Bore et du Fluor dans la Maladie de Basedow," La Presse Medicale 42 (1932): 836-37.
  74. D. G. Steyn, "Water Poisoning in Man and Animal, Together with a Discussion on Urinary Calculi" (n. 25 above).
  75. D. G. Steyn, "Fluorine and Endemic Goiter," South African Medical Journal 22, no. 16 (1948): 525-26.
  76. D. G. Steyn, J. Kieser, W. A. Odendaal, et al., "Endemic Goitre in the Union of South Africa and Some Neighbouring Territories" (Pretoria: Union of South Africa, Department of Nutrition, March 1955). Excerpts at http://www.slweb.org/south-africa.goitre.html.
  77. R. H. Wilson and F. DeEds, "The Synergistic Action of Thyroid on Fluoride Toxicity," Endocrinology 26, no. 5 (1940): 851-56.
  78. H. T Dean, "A Review of Fluorine Intoxication by Kaj Roholm (1937)" (n. 24 above).
  79. P. C. Hodges, 0. J. Fareed, G. Ruggy, et al., "Skeletal Sclerosis in Chronic Sodium Fluoride Poisoning," Journal of the American Medical Association 117, no. 23 (1941): 1938.
  80. Abstract of the proceedings of the meetings of the Technical Advisory Committee on the fluoridation of water supplies with the departmental- working committee for the Newburgh-Kingston (NY) demonstration, April 24,1944; in the H. T Dean Papers, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland.
  81. C. G. Pandit et al, "Endemic Fluorosis in South India" (n. 28 above).
  82. American Medical Association, "Chronic Fluorine Intoxication" (editorial), Journal of the American Medical Association 123 (1943): 150.
  83. Abstract of the proceedings of the meetings of the Technical Advisory Committee on the fluoridation of water supplies with the departmental working committee for the Newburgh-Kingston (NY) demonstration (n. 80 above).
  84. N. C. Leone, M. B. Shimkin, E A. Arnold, et al., "Medical Aspects of Excessive Fluoride in a Water Supply," Public Health Reports 69, no. 10 (1954): 925-36, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2024409/pdf/pubhealthreporig00178-0039.pdf.
  85. N. C. Leone, E A. Arnold Jr., E. R. Zimmermann, et al., "Review of the Bartlett Cameron Survey: A Ten Year Fluoride Study," Journal of the American Dental Association 50, no. 3 (1955): 277-81.
  86. N. C. Leone, C. A. Stevenson, T E Hilbish, and M. C. Sosman, "A Roentgenologic Study of a Human Population Exposed to High-Fluoride Domestic Water; a Ten-Year Study," The American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine 74, no. 5 (1955): 874-85.
  87. C. A. Stevenson and R. Watson, "Fluoride Osteosclerosis," The American Journal of Roentgenology, Radium Therapy, and Nuclear Medicine 78, no. 1 (1957): 13-18.
  88. Abstract of the proceedings of the meetings of the Technical Advisory Committee on the fluoridation of water supplies with the departmental working committee for the Newburgh-Kingston (NY) demonstration (n. 80 above).
  89. D. B. Ast, "Response on Receiving the John W. Knutson Distinguished Service Award in Dental Public Health," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 43, no. 2 (1983): 101-5.
  90. Abstract of the proceedings of the meetings of the Technical Advisory Committee on the fluoridation of water supplies with the departmental working committee for the Newburgh-Kingston (NY) demonstration (n. 80 above).
  91. American Dental Association; "The Effect of Fluorine on Dental Caries" (editorial), Journal of the American Dental Association 31 (1944): 1360-63.
  92. D. B. Ast, "A Plan to Determine the Practicability, Efficacy, and Safety of Fluorinating a Communal Water-Supply, Deficient in Fluorine, to Control Dental Caries," in Fluorine in Dental Public Health. A Symposium, ed. W. J. Gies (New York City 1945).
  93. Letter from R. E. Dyer to E. S. Godfrey, November 20,1944. In the H. T. Dean Papers, National Library of Medicine, History of Medicine Division, Bethesda, Maryland.
  94. F. J. McClure, "Fluoride Domestic Waters and Systemic Effects. I" (n. 31 above).
  95. F. B. Exner, "Fluoridation," Northwest Medicine 54 (1955). Note: The quotes we cite are in the section titled "McClure's Study of Bone Fragility"
  96. F. J. McClure et al., "Balances of Fluorine Ingested from Various Sources in Food and Water by Five Young Men" (n. 33 above).
  97. P. Wallace-Durbin, "The Metabolism of Fluorine in Rat using F^18 as a Tracer," Journal of Dental Research 33, no. 6 (1954): 789-800, http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/33/6/789.
  98. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides," Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 22 (1963): 111-17.
  99. F. B. Exner, "Fluoridation" (n. 97 above).
  100. F. R Moulton, Dental Caries and Fluorine, publication of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (Lancaster, Pennsylvania: The Science Press Printing Company, 1946).
  101. D. C. Wilson, "Fluorine in Aetiology of Endemic Goitre," The Lancet 240 (1941): 211-13.
  102. C. D. M. Day, "Chronic Endemic Fluorosis in Northern India," British Dental Journal 68 (1940): 409.
  103. F. R Moulton, Dental Caries and Fluorine, 34 (n. 102 above).
  104. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 81-87 (n. 4 above).
  105. E. R. Schlesinger, D. E. Overton, and H. C. Chase, "Newburgh-Kingston Caries-Fluorine Study. II. Pediatric Aspects Preliminary Report," American Journal of Public Health 40, no. 6 (1950): 725-27, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/artides/PMC1528773/pdf/amjphnation01021-0070.pdf.
  106. D. R. McNeil, The Fight for Fluoridation, chapters 3 and 4 (n. 1 above).
  107. G. J. Cox and H. C. Hodge, "The Toxicity of Fluorides in Relation to Their Use in Dentistry" (n. 36 above).
  108. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 40 (n. 4 above).
  109. G. J. Cox, "New Knowledge of Fluorine in Relation to Dental Caries" (n. 8 above).
  110. E. Welsome, The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War (New York: Delta, 1999).
  111. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 66 (n. 4 above).
  112. G. J. Cox and H. C. Hodge, "The Toxicity of Fluorides in Relation to Their Use in Dentistry" (n. 36 above).
  113. F. J. McClure, "Fluoride Domestic Waters and Systemic Effects. I" (n. 31 above).
  114. R. J. Evans, P. H. Phillips, and E. B. Hart, "Fluoride Storage in Cattle Bones," Journal of Dairy Science 21, no. 2 (1938): 81-84.
  115. G. J. Cox and H. C. Hodge, "The Toxicity of Fluorides in Relation to Their Use in Dentistry" (n. 36 above).
  116. R. J. Evans and P. H. Phillips, "The Fluorine Content of the Thyroid Gland in Cases of Hyperthyroidism," Journal of the American Medical Association 111, no. 4 (1938): 300-302.
  117. P. H. Phillips and A. R. Lamb, "Histology of Certain Organs and Teeth in Chronic Toxicosis Due to Fluorine" (n. 64 above).
  118. P. H. Phillips et al., "The Influence of Sodium Fluoride upon the Basal Metabolism of the Rat under Several Experimental Conditions" (n. 65 above).
  119. P. H. Phillips et al., "The Augmentation of Fluorosis in the Chick by Feeding Desiccated Thyroid" (n. 66 above).
  120. P. H. Phillips, "Further Studies on the Effects of NaF Administration upon the Basal Metabolic Rate of Experimental Animals" (n. 67 above).
  121. H. Cristiani, 'Alteration de la Glande Thyroide dans L'intoxication Fluorée" (n. 12 above).
  122. H. Cristiani, "Le Fluor des Os Dans l'Intoxioation Fluorique" (n. 13 above).
  123. G. von Mundy, "Ein neuer Weg zur Behandlung der Thyreotoxikose mit Fluorwasserstoffsäure" (n. 60 above).
  124. E. Spéder and A. Charnot, "Syndromes Osseux du Type Hyperparathyroidien et du Type Hypoparathyroidien, Provoqués par l'Intoxication par les Sivers Sels de Fluor et des Intoxications Minérales Associées" (n. 61 above).
  125. K. Kraft, "Beiträge zur Biochemie des Fluors I. Uber den Antagonismus Zwischen Fluor und Thyroxin" (n. 62 above).
  126. J. D. Hatfield et al., "Iodine-Fluorine Relationship in Sheep Nutrition" (n. 63 above).
  127. L. Goldemberg, "Action Physiologique des Fluorures" (n. 68 above).
  128. L. Goldemberg, "Traitement de la Maladie de Basedow et de l'Hyperthyroidisme par le Fluor" (n. 69 above).
  129. L. Goldemberg, "Comment Agiraient-ils Therapeutiquement les Fluorures dans le Goitre Exopthalmique et dans L'hyperthyroidisme" (n. 70 above).'
  130. W. May, "Antagonismus Zwischen Jod und Fluor im Organismus" (n. 71 above).
  131. W. May, "Behandlung der Hyperthyreosen Einschliesslich des Schweren Genuinen Morbus Basedow mit Fluor" (n. 72 above).
  132. W. Orlowski, "Sur la Valeur Therapeutique du Sang Animal du Bore et du Fluor dans la Maladie de Basedow" (n. 73 above).
  133. D. G. Steyn, "Water Poisoning in Man and Animal, Together with a Discussion on Urinary Calculi" (n. 25 above).
  134. D. G. Steyn, "Fluorine and Endemic Goiter" (n. 75 above).
  135. R. H. Wilson and F. DeEds, "The Synergistic Action of Thyroid on Fluoride Toxicity" (n. 77 above).
  136. American Medical Association, "Chronic Fluorine Intoxication" (n. 82 above).
  137. American Dental Association, "The Effect of Fluorine on Dental Caries" (n. 93 above).
  138. E J. McClure, "Fluoride Domestic Waters and Systemic Effects. I" (n. 31 above).
  139. F. J. McClure et al., "Balances of Fluorine Ingested from Various Sources in Food and Water by Five Young Men. Excretion of Fluorine through the Skin" (n. 33 above).
  140. Cox and Hodge, "The Toxicity of Fluorides in Relation to their Use in Dentistry" (n. 36 above).
  141. Abstract of the proceedings of the meetings of the Technical Advisory Committee on the fluoridation of water supplies with the departmental working committee for the Newburgh-Kingston (NY) demonstration (n. 80 above).
  142. E. R. Schlesinger et al., "Newburgh-Kingston Caries-Fluorine Study. II" (n. 112 above).
  143. American Dental Association, "U.S. Public Health Service Recommends Fluoridation of Communal Water Supplies as Caries Control Measure," ADA Newsletter 3, no. 11 (June 1, 1950).
  144. D. R. McNeil, The Fight for Fluoridation, 73 and 74 (n. 1 above).
  145. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, chapter 9 (n. 4 above).
  146. F. B. Exner and G. L. Waldbott, The American Fluoridation Experiment, 8 (n. 3 above).
  147. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 81-87 (n. 4 above).
  148. Ibid, 92-93.
  149. E. Welsome, The Plutonium Files (n. 117 above).
  150. American Dental Association, "This First Half Century," Journal of the American Dental Association 40, no. 6 (1950): 643.
  151. American Dental Association, "U.S. Public Health Service Recommends Fluoridation of Communal Water Supplies as Caries Control Measure" (n. 150 above).
  152. American Dental Association, "USPHS Recommends Public Water Fluoridation," Journal of the American Dental Association 41, no. 1 (1950): 93-94.
  153. American Dental Association, "Dental Health of the Nation's Children Furthered by Actions of House of Delegates," Journal of the American Dental Association 41, no. 6 (1950): 722-23.

Chapter 10: The Great Fluoridation Gamble, 1950

  1. F. B. Exner and G. L. Waldbott, The American Fluoridation Experiment (New York: Devin-Adair Publishing Company, 1957).
  2. U.S. Public Health Service, "Proceeding. Fourth Annual Conference of State Dental Directors with the Public Health Service and the Children's Bureau," Washington, DC, June 6-8, 1951, page 20, http://fluoridealert.org/re/StateDental Directors-l.pdf.
  3. J. W. Knutson, "The Case for Water Fluoridation," New England Journal of Medicine 246, no. 19 (1952): 737-43.
  4. National Research Council, Report of Ad Hoc Committee on Fluoridation of Water Supplies (Washington, DC: Division of Medical Sciences, November 1951).
  5. J. W. Knutson, "The Case for Water Fluoridation," 742 (n. 6 above).
  6. R. F. Sognnaes, F. A. Arnold, H. C. Hodge, and 0. L. Kline, "The Problem of Providing Optimum Fluoride Intake for Prevention of Dental Caries." A report of the Committee on Dental Health of the Food and Nutrition Board prepared by the Subcommittee on Optimum Fluoride Levels, Division of Biology and Agriculture, National Research Council, Publication 294, November 1953.
  7. N. C. Leone, M. B. Shimkin, E A. Arnold, et al., "Medical Aspects of Excessive Fluoride in a Water Supply. A Ten Year Study," 110-29. In Fluoridation as a Public Health Measure, ed. J. H. Shaw, (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1954).
  8. N. C. Leone, M. B. Shimkin, F. A. Arnold, et al., "Medical Aspects of Excessive Fluoride in a Water Supply," Public Health Reports 69, no. 10 (1954): 925-36, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2024409/pdf/pubhealthreporig00178-0039.pdf.
  9. Short biography of Nicholas Charles Leone in: "Fluoridation of Water," Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives, Second Session of H.R.2341, "A Bill to Protect the Public Health from the Dangers of Fluorination of Water," May 25,26, and 27,1954, page 392.
  10. N. C. Leone et al., "Medical Aspects of Excessive Fluoride in a Water Supply" (n. 16 above).
  11. R. F. Sognnaes et al., "The Problem of Provicting Optimum Fluoride Intake for Prevention of Dental Caries" (n. 14 above).
  12. F. B. Exner and G. L. Waldbott, The American Fluoridation Experiment, 73-75 (n. 1 above).
  13. N. C. Leone et al., "Medical Aspects of Excessive Fluoride in a Water Supply" (n. 16 above).
  14. K. Roholm, Fluorine Intoxication: A Clinical-Hygienic Study, with a Review of the Literature and Some Experimental Investigations (Copenhagen: Nyt Nordisk Forlag; London: H. K. Lewis and Co.Ltd., 1937), http://www.scribd.com/doc/11757791/ Fluorine-Intoxication-Kaj-Roholm-1937-Copenhagen.
  15. H. E. Shortt, G. R. McRobert, T. W. Barnard, and A. S. M. Nayar, "Endemic Fluorosis in the Madras Presidency," Indian Journal of Medical Research 25, no. 2 (1937): 553-68.
  16. C. G. Pandit, T N. S. Raghavachari, D. S. Rao, and V. Krishnamurti, "Endemic Fluorosis in South India," Indian Journal of Medical Research 28, no. 2 (1940): 533-58.
  17. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), 170-71, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=170; and http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=171.
  18. E B. Exner and G. L. Waldbott, The American Fluoridation Experiment, 66 (n. 1 above).
  19. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception (New York Seven Stories Press, 2004), 178-79.
  20. H. L. Needleman, "Clair Patterson and Robert Kehoe: Two Views of Lead Toxicity," Environmental Research 78, no. 2 (1998): 79-85.
  21. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 106-7 (n. 33 above).
  22. I. R. Campbell, The Role of Fluoride in Public Health: The Soundness of Fluoridation of Communal Water Supplies. A Selected Bibliography, supported by Research Grant DE-01493 (Formerly D-1493) from the National Institute of Dental Research, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1963.
  23. D. B. Ast, D. J. Smith, B. Wachs, and K. T Cantwell, "Newburgh-Kingston Caries-Fluorine Study. XIV. Combined Clinical and Roentgenographic Dental Findings After Ten Years of Fluoride Experience," Journal of the American Dental Association 52, no. 3 (1956): 314-25.
  24. E. R. Schlesinger, D. E. Overton, H. C. Chase, and B. A. Cantwell, "Newburgh-Kingston Caries-Fluorine Study. XIII. Pediatric Findings After Ten Years," Journal of the American Dental Association 52, no. 3 (1956): 296-306.
  25. N. C. Leone et al., "Medical Aspects of Excessive Fluoride in a Water Supply" (n. 16 above).
  26. E. R. Schlesinger, "The Medical Aspects of Water Fluoridation," Pediatrics 19, no. 1 (1957): 156-61.
  27. C. G. Pandit et al., "Endemic Fluorosis in South India" (n. 30 above).
  28. E. R. Schlesinger, "The Medical Aspects of Water Fluoridation," 160 (n. 43 above).
  29. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 83-87 (n. 33 above).
  30. Committee to Protect Our Children's Teeth, Inc., Our Children's Teeth. A digest of expert opinion based on studies of the use of fluorides in public water supplies, submitted to the Mayor and the Board of Estimate of the City of New York, March 6,1957.
  31. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 162 (n. 33 above).
  32. Committee to Protect Our Children's Teeth, Inc., Our Children's Teeth, 2 (n. 51 above).
  33. American Dental Association, Dental Caries, Findings and Conclusions on Its Causes and Control, Advisory Committee on Research in Dental Caries (New York: Lancaster Press Inc., 1939). Cited by P. C. Baehni and B. Guggenheim, "Potential of Diagnostic Microbiology for Treatment and Prognosis of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease," Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine 7, no. 3 (1996): 259-77.
  34. Committee to Protect Our Children's Teeth, Inc., Our Children's Teeth, 5 (n. 51 above).
  35. A P. Black, "Facts in Refutation of Claims by Opponents of Fluoridation," Journal of the American Dental Association 50, no. 6 (1955): 655-64.
  36. G. L. Waldbott, A. W. Burgstahler, and H. L. McKinney, Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma (Lawrence, Kansas: Coronado Press, 1978), 311.
  37. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 163-65 (n. 33 above).
  38. G. J. Cox and H. C. Hodge, "The Toxicity of Fluorides in Relation to Their Use in Dentistry," Journal of the American Dental Association 40 (1950): 440-51.
  39. "Professional Perspectives on Water Fluoridation," a DVD produced by Michael Connett for Fluoride Action Network, 2009, http://www.fluoridealert.org/prof.dvd.html.
  40. E. Welsome, The Plutonium Files: America's Secret Medical Experiments in the Cold War (New York: Delta, 1999).
  41. H. C. Hodge and F A. Smith, "Some Public Health Aspects of Water Fluoridation," Fluoridation as a Public Health Measure, ed. J. H. Shaw (Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1954).
  42. F. A. Smith, D. E. Gardner, and H. C. Hodge, "Investigations on the Metabolism of Fluoride. III. Effect of Acute Renal Tubular Injury in Urinary Excretion of Fluoride by the Rabbit," A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health 11, no. 1 (1955): 2-10.
  43. H. C. Hodge, "Fluoride Metabolism: It’s Significance in Water Fluoridation," Journal of the American Dental Association 52, no. 3 (1956): 307-14.
  44. H. C. Hodge, "Notes on the Effects of Fluoride Deposition on Body Tissues," A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health 21 (1960): 350-52.
  45. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides," Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 22 (1963): 111-17, http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=l&fid=7840608cjid=PNS&volumeId=22&issueId=01&aid=784052.
  46. H. C. Hodge and E A. Smith, "Biological Effects of Inorganic Fluorides," in: Fluorine Chemistry, ed. J. H. Simons (New York: Academic Press, 1963).
  47. H. C. Hodge and F. A. Smith, Fluorine Chemistry, vol. 4 (New York and London: Academic Press, 1965).
  48. H. C. Hodge and F. A. Smith, "Air Quality Criteria for the Effects of Fluorides on Man," Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 20 (1970): 226-32.
  49. H. C. Hodge and F. A. Smith, "Occupational Fluoride Exposure," Journal of Occupational Medicine 19, no. 1 (1977): 12-39.
  50. H. C. Hodge, "The Safety of Fluoride Tablets or Drops," 253-74, in: Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides, ed. E. Johansen, D. R. Taves, and T 0. Olsen, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Selected Symposium (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979).
  51. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides," 113 (n. 69 above).
  52. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 9,30,292 (n. 31 above).
  53. H. C. Hodge, "Fluoride Metabolism: It’s Significance in Water Fluoridation" (n. 67 above).
  54. "Examples of Acute Poisoning from Water Fluoridation." A list of fluoridation accidents. Fluoride Action Network, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/accidents/fluoridation.html.
  55. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides," 112-13 (n. 69 above).
  56. C. M. McCay, W. F. Ramseyer, and C. A. Smith, "Effect of Sodium Fluoride Administration on Body Changes in Old Rats," Journal of Gerontology 12, no. 1 (1957): 14-19.
  57. A. H. Siddiqui, "Fluorosis in Nalgonda District, Hyderabad-Deccan," British Medical Journal 2, no. 4953 (1955): 1408-13.
  58. J. A. Varner, K. F. Jensen, W. Horvath, and R. L. Isaacson, "Chronic Administration of Aluminum-Fluoride and Sodium-Fluoride to Rats in Drinking Water: Alterations in Neuronal and Cerebrovascular Integrity," Brain Research 784, no. 1-2 (1998): 284-98. Extended excerpts at http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-2/31291-95.htm.
  59. J. L. Borke and G. M. Whitford, "Chronic Fluoride Ingestion Decreases 45Ca Uptake by Rat Kidney Membranes," Journal of Nutrition 129 (1999): 1209-13, http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/129/6/1209.
  60. J. A. Varner et al., "Chronic Administration of Aluminum-Fluoride and Sodium Fluoride to Rats in Drinking Water" (n. 82 above).
  61. J. L. Borke and G. M. Whitford, "Chronic Fluoride Ingestion Decreases 45Ca Uptake by Rat Kidney Membranes" (n. 83 above).
  62. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides," 113 (n. 69 above).
  63. P. Galletti and G. Joyet, "Effect of Fluorine on Thyroidal Iodine Metabolism in Hyperthyroidism," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 18, no. 10 (1958): 1102-10.
  64. P. P. Bachinskii, 0. A. Gutsalenko, N. D. Naryzhniuk et al., "Action of Fluoride on the Function of the Pituitary-thyroid System of Healthy Persons and Patients with Thyroid Disorders," Problemy Endokrinologii (Mosk) 31, no. 6 (1985): 25-9. Article in Russian; English translation at http://www.fluoridealert.org/bachinskii.1985.pdf.
  65. F F. Lin, Aihaiti, H. X. Zhao, et al., "The Relationship of a Low-Iodine and High-Fluoride Environment to Subclinical Cretinism in Xinjiang," Xinjiang Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research; Office of Leading Group for Endemic Disease Control of Hetian Prefectural Committee of the Communist Party of China; and County Health and Epidemic Prevention Station, Yutian, Xinjiang, Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter 7 (1991): 3, http://fluoridealert.org/scher/lin-1991.pdf; also see http://www.fluoridealert.org/IDD.htm.
  66. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides," 114 (n. 69 above).
  67. H. C. Hodge and F. A. Smith, "Some Public Health Aspects of Water Fluoridation," (n. 65 above).
  68. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 125 (n. 33 above).
  69. A. H. Siddiqui, "Fluorosis in Nalgonda District, Hyderabad-Deccan" (n. 81 above).
  70. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides," 115 (n. 69 above).
  71. H. C. Hodge, "Notes on the Effects of Fluoride Deposition on Body Tissues," A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health 21 (1960): 350-52.
  72. National Research Council, Fluorides (Washington, DC: Committee on Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants, National Academy of Science, 1971).
  73. H. C. Hodge, "The Safety of Fluoride Tablets or Drops" (n. 74 above).
  74. National Research Council, Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride, 89 (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993), http://www.map.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030904975X.
  75. Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (Washington, DC: Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, 1997), http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776.
  76. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Fluoride. Final Rule," Federal Register, 40 CM Part 104 [WH-FRL-2913-8(b)], November 14, 1985. Note: The MCL established on April 2, 1986 [51 FR 11396), finalizes regulations proposed in the Federal Register of May 14, 1985 (50 FR 20164)]; http://fluoridealert.org/scher/epa-1985.pdf.
  77. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 31 above).
  78. E. R. Schlesinger et al., "Newburgh-Kingston Caries-Fluorine Study XIII. Pediatric Findings after Ten Years" (n. 40 above).
  79. E. R. Schlesinger, "The Medical Aspects of Water Fluoridation" (n. 43 above).
  80. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides," 105 (n. 69 above).
  81. G. L. Waldbott, A Struggle with Titans: Forces Behind Fluoridation, chapter 12 (New York: Carlton Press, 1965).
  82. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, chapter 2 (n. 33 above).

Chapter 11: Dental Fluorosis

  1. M.O. Smith, E.M. Lantz, and H.V. Smith, "The Cause of Mottled Enamel, a Defect of Human Teeth," Technical Bulletin No. 32, Agricultural Experiment Station, College of Agriculture, University of Arizona, June 10,1931.
  2. H. V. Churchill, "The Occurrence of Fluorides in Some Waters of the United States,". Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 23 no. 9: 996-8. Reprinted in The Journal of Dental Research 12 (1932): 141-48, http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/12/1/141.
  3. H. Velu, "Dystrophie Dentaire des Mammiferes des Zones Phosphatées (Darmous) et Fluorose Chronique," Comptes Rendus des Stances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales 108 (1931): 750-52.
  4. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004), 39.
  5. H. T Dean, "Classification of Mottled Enamel Diagnosis," Journal of the American Dental Association 49, no. 1 (1934): 1421-26.
  6. H. T Dean, F. S. McKay, and E. Elvove, "Mottled Enamel Survey of Bauxite, Ark, 10 Years After a Change in the Common Water Supply," Public Health Reports 53 (1938): 1736-48; article begins on page 1736 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2110835/pdf/pubhealthreporig009820004.pdf.
  7. H. T Dean and E. Elvove, "Some Epidemiological Aspects of Chronic Endemic Dental Fluorosis," American Journal of Public 26 (1936): 567-75, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1562676/pdf/amjphnation01063-0033.pdf.
  8. H. T Dean, "Endemic Fluorosis and Its Relation to Dental Caries," Public Health Reports 53, no. 33 (1938): 1443-52, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2110810/pdf/pubhealthreporig00976-0004.pdf.
  9. H T Dean, P. Jay, F. A. Arnold Jr., and E. Elvove, "Domestic Water and Dental Caries. II. A Study of 2,832 White Childrn, Ages 12-14 years, of 8 Suburban Chicago Communities, Including Lactobacillus Acidophilus Studies of 1,761 Children," Public Health Reports 56 (1941): 761-92.
  10. H. T Dean, F. A. Arnold Jr., and E. Elvove, "Domestic Water and Dental Caries, V. Additional Studies of the Relation of Fluoride Domestic Waters to Dental Caries Experience in 4425 White Children, Age 12-14 Years, of 13 Cities in 4 States," Public Health Reports 57 (1942): 1155-79, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/ PMC1968063/pdf/pubhealthreporig01481-0001.pdf.
  11. H. T Dean in: Testimony of Isadore Zipkin, Ph.D., National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., in Chemicals in Foods and Cosmetics: Hearings Before the House Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in Foods and Cosmetics, House of Representatives, 82nd Congress (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1952), 1652.
  12. K. E. Heller, S. A. Eklund, and B. A. Burt, "Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis at Varying Water Fluoride Concentrations," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 57, no. 3 (1997): 136-43.
  13. M. S. McDonagh, P. E Whiting, P. M. Wilson, et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (2000): 855-59, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/855. Note: The full report that this paper summarizes is commonly known as the York Review and is accessible at http://fluoridealert.org/re/york seview.2000.pdf.
  14. E. Helleret al., "Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis at Varying Water Fluoride Concentrations" (n. 13 above.)
  15. E. D. Beltran-Aguilar, B. F. Gooch, A. Kingman, et al., "Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis—United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54, no. 3 (August 26, 2005): 1-44, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5403al.htm.
  16. E. Dincer, "Why Do I Have White Spots on My Front Teeth," New York State Dental Journal 74, no. 1 (2008): 58-60, http://www.nysdental.org/img/current-pdf/JrnlJan2008 .pdf.
  17. T Aoba and 0. Fejerskov, "Dental Fluorosis: Chemistry and Biology," Critical Reviews in Oral Biology 13, no. 2 (2002): 155-70.
  18. P. K. DenBesten, "Effects of Fluoride on Protein Secretion and Removal During Enamel Development in the Rat," Journal of Dental Research 65, no. 10 (1986): 1272-7, http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/65/10/1272.
  19. P. K. DenBesten and H. Thariani, "Biological Mechanisms of Fluorosis and Level and Timing of Systemic Exposure to Fluoride with Respect to Fluorosis," Journal of Dental Research 71, no. 5 (1992): 1238-43, http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/71/5/1238.
  20. P. K. DenBesten, "Biological Mechanism of Dental Fluorosis Relevant to the Use of Fluoride Supplements," Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 27, no. 1 (1999): 41-47.
  21. S. Matsuo, K. Kiyomiya, and M. Kurebe, "Mechanism of Toxic Action of Fluoride in Dental Fluorosis: Whether Trimeric G Proteins Participate in the Disturbance of Intracellular Transport of Secretory Ameloblast Exposed to Fluoride," Archives of Toxicology 72, no. 12 (1998): 798-806.
  22. A. Schuld, "Is Dental Fluorosis Caused by Thyroid Hormonal Disturbances?" Fluoride 38, no. 2 (2005): 91-94, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/382/files/38291-94.pdf.
  23. U.S. Public Health Service, "Proceeding. Fourth Annual Conference of State Dental Directors with the Public Health Service and the Children's Bureau," page 15, Washington, DC, June 6-8, 1951, http://fluoridealert.org/re/StateDentalDirectors-tpdf.
  24. Video of the presentation by Dr. Peter Cooney, Chief Dental Officer of Canada, on the case for fluoridation of drinking water in Dryden, Ontario, Canada, April 1,2008, http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4888471756915953833&11=en.

Chapter 12: Fluoride's Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Physiology

  1. The quote from Nobel laureate Dr. James Sumner, who was the director of enzyme chemistry in the department of biochemistry and nutrition at Cornell University, was circulated in the booklet "When Doctors Disagree," ninth printing, March 1965. No citation is given for Sumner's quote. As Sumner's reservations about water fluoridation were well known at the time, we do not doubt its authenticity. Publishers of the booklet: Greater New York Committee Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc., New Jersey Council Opposing Fluoridation, Massachusetts Citizens Rights Association, Inc., and Fluoridation Evaluation Committee (Connecticut).
  2. J. Emsley, D. J. Jones, J. M. Miller, et al., "An Unexpectedly Strong Hydrogen Bond: AB Initio Calculations and Spectroscopic Studies of Amide-Fluoride Systems," Journal of the American Chemical Society 103, no. 1 (1981): 24-28.
  3. K. R. Mahaffey and C. L. Stone, "Effect of High Fluorine (F) Intake on Tissue Lead (Pb) Concentrations," Federation Proceedings 35 (1976): 256.
  4. P. Allain, E Gauchard, and N. Krari, "Enhancement of Aluminum Digestive Absorption by Fluoride in Rats," Research Communications in Molecular Pathology and Pharmacology 91, no. 2 (1996): 225-31.
  5. J. A. Varner, K. E Jensen, W. Horvath, and R. L. Isaacson, "Chronic Administration of Aluminum-Fluoride and Sodium-Fluoride to Rats in Drinking Water: Alterations in Neuronal and Cerebrovascular Integrity," Brain Research 784, no. 1-2 (1998): 284-98. Extended excerpts at http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-2/31291-95.htm.
  6. R. M. M. Sawan, G. A. S. Leite, M. C. P. Saraiva, et al., "Fluoride Increases Lead Concentrations in Whole Blood and in Calcified Tissues from Lead-Exposed Rats," Toxicology 271, no. 1-2 (2010): 21-26.
  7. J. Bigay, P. Deterre, C. Pfister, and M. Chabre, "Fluoroaluminates Activate Transducin-GDP by Mimicking the Gamma-Phosphate of GTP in Its Binding Site," FEBS Letters 191, no. 2 (1985): 181-85.
  8. J. Bigay, P. Deterre, C. Pfister, and M. Chabre, "Fluoride Complexes of Aluminium or Beryllium Act on G-Proteins as Reversibly Bound Analogues of the Gamma Phosphate of GTP," EMBO Journal 6, no. 10 (1987)): 2907-13.
  9. A. Strunecka and J. Patocka, "Pharmacological and Toxicological Effects of Aluminofluoride Complexes," Fluoride 32, no. 4 (1999): 230-42.
  10. L. Li, "The Biochemistry and Physiology of Metallic Fluoride: Action, Mechanism, and Implications," Critical Reviews of Oral Biology and Medicine 14, no. 2 (2003): 100-114.
  11. K. L. Kirk, Biochemistry of the Elemental Halogens and Inorganic Halides (New York Plenum Press, 1991).
  12. J. Zhang, W. J. Zhu, X. H. Xu, and Z. G. Zhang, "Effect of Fluoride on Calcium Ion Concentration and Expression of Nuclear Transcription Factor Kappa-B Rho65 in Rat Hippocampus," Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology, March 2010 (in press).
  13. E. Gazzano, L. Bergandi, C. Riganti, et al., "Fluoride Effects: The Two Faces of Janus," Current Medicinal Chemistry, May 24, 2010 (in press).
  14. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards, page 36 (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=36.
  15. Ibid. TABLE 2-6 "Summary of Typical Fluoride Concentrations of Selected Food and Beverages in the United States," page 40. Note: levels of fluoride in breast milk from a fluoridated area (1 mg/L) measured at 0.007-0.01 mg/L and levels of fluoride in breast milk from a nonfluoridated area measured at 0.004 mg/L, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030910128X&page=40.
  16. 0. B. Dirks, J. M. Jongeling-Eijndhoven, T. D. Flissebaalje, and I. Gedalia, "Total and Free Ionic Fluoride in Human and Cow's Milk as Determined by Gas-Liquid Chromatography and the Fluoride Electrode," Caries Research 8, no. 2 (1974): 181-86.
  17. R. W. Dabeka, K. F. Karpinski, A. D. McKenzie, and C. D. Bajdik, "Survey of Lead, Cadmium and Fluoride in Human Milk and Correlation of Levels with Environmental and Food Factors," Food & Chemical Toxicology 24, no. 9 (1986): 913-21.
  18. E. Koparal, F. Ertugrul, and K. Oztekin, "Fluoride Levels in Breast Milk and Infant Foods," Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 24, no. 4 (2000): 299-302.
  19. S. Chuckpaiwong, S. Nakornchai, R. Surarit, and S. Soo-ampon, "Fluoride Analysis of Human Milk in Remote Areas of Thailand," Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine & Public Health 31, no. 3 (2000): 583-86.
  20. C. J. Spak, L. I. Hardell, and P. De Chateau, "Fluoride in Human Milk," Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 72, no. 5 (1983): 699-701.
  21. R. W. Dabeka et al., "Survey of Lead,, Cadmium and Fluoride in Human Milk and Correlation of Levels with Environmental and Food Factors" (n. 17 above).
  22. R. Latifah and R. Duguid, "Measurements of Ionic Fluoride in Milk," Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 15, no. 3 (1986): 299-304.
  23. C. J. Spak et al., "Fluoride in Human Milk" (n. 20 above).
  24. G. N. Opinya, N. Bwibo, J. Valderhaug, et al, "Intake of Fluoride and Excretion in Mothers' Milk in a High Fluoride (9 ppm) Area in Kenya," European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, no. 1 (1991): 37-41.
  25. J. Ekstrand, L.O. Boreus, and P. de Chateau, "No Evidence of Transfer of Fluoride from Plasma to Breast Milk," British Medical Journal 283, no. 6294 (1981): 761-62.
  26. J. Ekstrand, C. J. Spak, J. Falch, et al, "Distribution of Fluoride to Human Breast Milk Following Intake of High Doses of Fluoride," Caries Research 18, no. 1 (1984): 93-95.
  27. A. Carlsson, "Current Problems Relating to the Pharmacology and Toxicology of Fluorides," Lakartidningen 25 (1978):1388-92.
  28. I. Inkielewicz and J. Krechniak, "Fluoride Content in Soft Tissues and Urine of Rats Exposed to Sodium Fluoride in Drinking Water," Fluoride 36, no. 4 (2003): 263-66, http://www.fluoride-journalcom/03-36-4/364-263.pdf.
  29. J. Luke, "The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland," PhD thesis, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 1997. Thesis online, with permission of author, at http://fluoridealert.org/luke-1997.pdf
  30. J. Luke, "Fluoride Deposition in the Aged Human Pineal Gland," Caries Research 35, no. 2 (2001): 125-28.
  31. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 92 (n. 14 above).
  32. C. Justus and L. P. Krook, "Allergy in Horses from Artificially Fluoridated Water," Fluoride 39, no. 2 (2006): 89-94, http://www.fluoridereseareh.org/392/files/39289-94.pdf.
  33. David Kennedy, DDS, produced the DVD Poisoned Horses for the International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology, 2008. Excerpts are available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9RXfOuylWo.
  34. C. Justus and L. P. Krook, 'Allergy in Horses from Artificially Fluoridated Water" (n. 34 above).
  35. 0. Naidenko, "Dog Food Comparison Shows High Fluoride Levels," Environmental Working Group, June 2009, http://www.ewg.org/pets/fluorideindogfood.

Chapter 13: Fluoride Poisoning of Humans: Early Reversible Effects

  1. B. Spittle, Fluoride Fatigue: Is Fluoride in Your Drinking Water--and from Other Sources-Making You Sick? (Dunedin, New Zealand: Paua Press, 2008), http://www.pauapress.com/fluoride/files/1418.pdf.
  2. G. L. Waldbott, Health Effects of Environmental Pollutants, 2nd ed. (St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Company, 1978).
  3. G. L. Waldbott, "Chronic Fluorine Intoxication from Drinking Water," International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 7, no. 2 (1955): 70-74.
  4. H. T. Petraborg, "Chronic Fluoride Intoxication from Drinking Water (Preliminary Report)," Fluoride 7, no. 1 (1974): 47-52.
  5. J. J. Shea, S. M. Gillespie, and G. L. Waldbott, "Allergy to Fluoride," Annals of Allergy 25 (1967): 388-91.
  6. H. T. Petraborg, "Hydrofluorosis in the Fluoridated Milwaukee Area," Fluoride 10, no. 4 (1977): 165-69.
  7. B. Spittle, Fluoride Fatigue (n. 1 above).
  8. D. M. Green, "Pre-Existing Conditions. Placebo Reactions and 'Side Effects,'" Annals of Internal Medicine 60 (1964): 255-65 (as cited by D. R. Taves, 1979 [see n. 9 below]).
  9. D. R. Taves, "Claims of Harm from Fluoridation," in: Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides, ed. E. Johansen, D. R. Taves, and T 0. Olsen, AAAS Selected Symposium, (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979), 295-321.
  10. G. W. Grimbergen, "A Double Blind Test for Determination of Intolerance to Fluoridated Water (Preliminary Report)," Fluoride 7, no. 3 (1974): 146-52, http:// fluoridealert.org/re/grimbergen-1974.pdf.
  11. G. L. Waldbott, "Facts About Fluoridation," Seminar, Rice University, Houston, Texas, October 16, 1974. Cited by Phillip Sutton in Fluoridation, 1979: Scientific Criticisms and Fluoride Dangers, submission to the Commission of Inquiry into the Fluoridation of Victorian Water Supplies, published With an appendix in January 1980.
  12. J. D. Shulman and L. M. Wells, "Acute Fluoride Toxicity from Ingesting Home-Use Dental Products in Children, Birth to 6 Years of Age," Journal of Public-Health Dentistry 57, no. 3 (1997): 150-58.
  13. R. Feltman, "Prenatal and Postnatal Ingestion of Fluoride Salts: A Progress Report," Dental Digest 62 (1956): 353-57.
  14. J. Rorty: see appendix 1 in: The American Fluoridation Experiment by F. B. Exner and G. L. Waldbott (New York Devin-Adair Company, 1957), 229-41.
  15. R. Feltman and G. Kosel, "Prenatal and Postnatal Ingestion of Fluorides-Fourteen Years of Investigation-Final Report," The Journal of Dental Medicine 16 (1961): 190-99.
  16. G. L. Waldbott, A. W. Burgstahler, and H. L. McKinney, Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma (Lawrence, Kansas: Coronado Press, 1978).
  17. G. L. Waldbott, A Struggle with Titans: Forces Behind Fluoridation (New York Carlton Press, 1965).
  18. J. J. Shea et al., "Allergy to Fluoride" (n. 5 above).
  19. T. E. Douglas, "Fluoride Dentifrice and Stomatitis," Northwest Medicine 56, no. 9 (1957): 1037-39.
  20. M. A. Saunders, "Fluoride Toothpaste: A Cause of Acne-Like Eruptions" (letter), Archives of Dermatology 111 (1975): 793.
  21. M. A. Saunders, "Fluoride Toothpaste as a Cause of Acne-Like Eruptions" (letter in reply to Ervin Epstein's letter), Archives of Dermatology 112 (1976): 1033-34.
  22. J. R. Mellette, J. L. Aeling, and D. D. Nuss, "Fluoride Tooth Paste: A Cause of Perioral Dermatitis" (letter), Archives of Dermatology 112, no. 5 (1976): 730-31.
  23. J. R. Mellette, J. L. Aeling, and D. D. Nuss, "Perioral Dermatitis," Journal of the Association of Military Dermatologists 9 (1983): 3-8.
  24. T E. Douglas, "Fluoride Dentifrice and Stomatitis" (n. 19 above).
  25. B. L. Riggs, E. Seeman, S. F. Hodgson, et al., "Effect of the Fluoride/Calcium Regimen on Vertebral Fracture Occurrence in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Comparison with Conventional Therapy," New England Journal of Medicine 306, no. 8 (1982): 446-50.
  26. A. Singh, S. S. Jolly, and B. C. Bansal, "Skeletal Fluorosis and Its Neurological Complications," The Lancet 1 (1961): 197-200.
  27. J. L. Shupe, "Fluorine Toxicosis and Industry," American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 31, no. 2 (1970): 240-47.
  28. J. J. Franke, F. Rath, H. Runge, et al., "Industrial Fluorosis," Fluoride 8, no. 2 (1975): 61-83, http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/franke-1975.pdf.
  29. Y. Wang, Y. Yin, L. A. Gilula, and A. J. Wilson, "Endemic Fluorosis of the Skeleton: Radiographic Features in 127 Patients," American Journal of Roentgenology 162, no. 1 (1994): 93-98.
  30. L. I. Popov, R. I. Filatova, and A. S. Shershever, "Aspects of Nervous System Affections in Occupational Fluorosis" (article in Russian), Gigiena Truda I Professional'nye Zabolevaniia 5 (1974): 25-27.
  31. K. Czechowicz, A. Osada, and B. Slesak, "Histochemical Studies on the Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Metabolism in Purkinje's Cells," Folia Histochemica et Cytochemica 12, no. 1 (1974): 37-44.
  32. G. L. Waldbott et al., Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma, 161 (n. 16 above).
  33. J. Routt Reigart and J. R. Roberts, Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings, 5th ed., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, EPA 735-R-98-003, 1999.
  34. J. D. Shulman and L. M. Wells, "Acute Fluoride Toxicity from Ingesting Home-Use Dental Products in Children, Birth to 6 Years of Age" (n. 12 above).
  35. C. J. Spak, S. Sjöstedt, L. Eleborg, et al., "Studies of Human Gastric Mucosa after Application of 0.42% Fluoride Gel," Journal of Dental Research 69, no. 2 (1990): 426-29, http://jdr.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/69/2/426.
  36. B. L. Riggs, "Treatment of Osteoporosis with Sodium Fluoride: an Appraisal," Bone and Mineral Research 2 (1983): 366-93.
  37. A. B. Hodsman and D. J. Drost, "The Response of Vertebral Bone Mineral Density during the Treatment of Osteoporosis. with Sodium Fluoride," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 69, no. 5 (1989): 932-38.
  38. A. K. Susheela, A. Kumar, M. Bhatnagar, et al., "Prevalence of Endemic Fluorosis with Gastrointestinal Manifestations in People Living in Some North-Indian Villages," Fluoride 26, no. 2 (1993): 97-104, http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/susheela-1993.pdf.
  39. S. Dasarathy, T K. Das, I. P. Gupta, et al., "Gastroduodenal Manifestations in Patients with Skeletal Fluorosis," Journal of Gastroenterology 31, no. 3 (1996): 333-37.
  40. K. F. Austen, M. Dworetzky, R. S. Farr, et al., "Editorial: American Academy of Allergy Statement on the Question of Allergy to Fluoride as Used in the Fluoridation of Community Water Supplies," The Journal of Allergy 47, no. 6 (1971): 347-48.
  41. G. L. Waldbott, A Struggle with Titans: Forces Behind Fluoridation (n. 17 above).
  42. G. L. Waldbott et al., Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma, 287-88 (n. 16 above).
  43. Royal College of Physicians of London, Fluoride, Teeth and Health, (Kent, UK: Pitman Medical Publishing Co. Ltd., 1976), 64.
  44. D. M. Myers, V. D. Plueckhahn, and A. L. G. Rees, Report of the Committee of Inquiry into the Fluoridation of Victorian Water Supplies for 1979-80, no. 14, (Melbourne: F.D. Atkinson, Government Printer, 1980), 114.
  45. National Health and Medical Research Council, Report of the Working Party on Fluorides in the Control of Dental Caries, as Adopted at 100th Session (Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1985), 109.
  46. National Health and Medical Research Council, The Effectiveness of Water Fluoridation (Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1991), 109.
  47. World Health Organization, Appropriate Use of Fluoride for Human Health, page 87, Geneva, 1986, ISBN 92 4 154203 9. Note: This report is online in two parts. Page 87 is in the second part at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/1986/9241542039_(part2) .pdf. The first part is at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/1986/9241542039_(part1).pdf.
  48. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, page 69, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, February 1991, http://health.gov/environment/ReviewofFluoride/.
  49. Public Health Commission, Water Fluoridation in New Zealand An Analysis and Monitoring Report, Wellington, New Zealand, July 1994, ISBN 0-478-08524-9.
  50. National Research Council, Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993), 89, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030904975X.
  51. M. Prival, "Fluoride and Human Health," Center for Science in the Public Interest, 1972. Excerpts at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/allergy/prival-1972.html.
  52. D. R. Taves, "Claims of Harm from Fluoridation," 299-300 (n. 9 above).
  53. M. Prival, "Fluoride and Human Health" (n. 51 above).
  54. D. R. Taves, "Claims of Harm from Fluoridation," 299-300 (n. 9 above).
  55. National Health and Medical Research Council, The Effectiveness of Water Fluoridation, 142 (n. 46 above).
  56. P. Robertson, personal communication to Paul Connett, 2008.
  57. M. Kuza and W. Kazimierczak, "On the Mechanism of Histamine Release from Sodium Fluoride-Activated Mouse Mast Cells," Agents Actions 12, no. 3 (1982): 289-94.
  58. P. E. Alm, "Sodium Fluoride Evoked Histamine Release from Mast Cells. A Study of Cyclic AMP Levels and Effects of Catecholamines," Agents Actions 13, no. 2-3 (1983): 132-37.

Chapter 14: The 2006 National Research Council Report

  1. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  2. Presentation by Joyce Donahue, PhD, toxicologist, Office of Science and Technology, U.S. EPA Office of Drinking Water, to National Academies' National Research Council Committee: Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water [BEST-K-02-05-A], August 12, 2003, http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/nrc.aug.2003.epa.html.
  3. National Research Council, Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993), 89, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030904975X.
  4. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 2 (n. 1 above).
  5. American Dental Association, "Statement on Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPAs Standards [the NRC 2006 report]," news release, March 22, 2006.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Statement on the 2006 National Research Council Report, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards," Division of Oral Health. Posted originally on March 28, 2006. Date last updated: August 24, 2009, http://www.cdc.gov/FLUORIDATION/safety/nrc_report.htm.
  7. National' Health and Medical Research Council, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation, reference no. EH41, Australian Government, December 27, 2007, http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/eh41syn.htm.
  8. Bazian Ltd., "Critical Appraisal of 'Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's standards.'" A report for South Central Strategic Health Authority, UK, delivery date: February 11, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/sha.basian.nrcieb09.pdf.
  9. F. F. Lin, Aihaiti, H. X. Zhao, et al., "The Relationship of a Low-Iodine and High-Fluoride Environment to Subclinical Cretinism in Xinjiang," Xinjiang Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research; Office of Leading Group for Endemic Disease Control of Hetian Prefectural Committee of the Communist Party of China; and County Health and Epidemic Prevention Station, Yutian, Xinjiang, Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter 7 (1991): 3, http://fluoridealert.org/scher/lin-1991.pdf; also see http://www.fluoridealert.org/IDD.htm.
  10. Y. Li, C. Liang, C W. Slemenda, et al., "Effect of Long-Term Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water on Risks of Bone Fractures," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16, no. 5 (2001): 932-39.
  11. M. T Alarcon-Herrera, I. R. Martin-Dominguez, R. Trejo-Vazquez, et al., "Well Water Fluoride, Dental Fluorosis, Bone Fractures in the Guadiana Valley of Mexico," Fluoride 34, no. 2 (2001): 139-49, http://www.fluoride-journal.com/01-34-2/342-139.pdf.
  12. Q. Xiang, Y. Liang, L. Chen, et al., "Effect of Fluoride in Drinking Water on Children's Intelligence," Fluoride 36, no. 2 (2003): 84-94, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/362/files/FJ2003_v36_n2_p84-94.pdf.
  13. Q. Xiang, Y. Liang, M. Zhou, and H. Zang, "Blood Lead of Children in Wamiao-Xinhuai Intelligence Study" (letter), Fluoride 36, no. 3 (2003): 198-99, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/363/files/FJ2003 v36_n3_p198-1-99.pdf.
  14. J. A. Varner, K. F. Jensen, W. Horvath, and R. L. Isaacson, "Chronic Administration of Aluminum-Fluoride and Sodium-Fluoride to Rats in Drinking Water: Alterations in Neuronal and Cerebrovascular Integrity," Brain Research 784, no. 1-2 (1998): 284-98. Extended excerpts at http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-2/31291-95.htm.
  15. P. Connett and M. Connett. Invitgd presentation to the National Research Council of the National Academies committee reviewing the safety of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level (MCL) for fluoride in drinking water, 2003. This PowerPoint presentation is at http://www.fluoridealert.org/nrc-final.ppt, and the paper supporting this presentation at http://www.fluoridealert.org/nrc-paper.pdf. See table 2, page 9.
  16. M. S. McDonagh, P. F. Whiting, P. M. Wilson, et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (2000): 855-59, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/855. Note: The full report that this paper summarizes is commonly known as the York Review and is accessible at http://fluoridealert.org/re/york .review.2000.pdf.
  17. National Health and Medical Research Council, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation (n. 7 above).
  18. Integrated Risk Information System on Fluorine (soluble fluoride) (CASRN 7782-41¬4), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst/0053.htm.
  19. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 170-71 (n. 1 above), http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030910128X&page=170 and http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030910128X&page=171.
  20. Ibid., 3, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030910128X&page=3.
  21. Ibid., 2, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=2.
  22. R. J. Carton, "Review of the 2006 National Research Council Report: Fluoride in Drinking Water," Fluoride 39, no. 3 (2006): 163-72, http://www.fluorideresearch .org/393/files/FJ2006_v39_n3_p163-172.pdf.
  23. American Dental Association, "Statement on Fluoride in Drinking Water" (n. 5 above).
  24. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Statement on the 2006 National Research Council Report, Fluoride in Drinking Water" (n. 6 above).
  25. National Health and Medical Research Council, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation" (n. 7 above).
  26. Bazian Ltd., "Critical Appraisal of 'Fluoride in Drinking Water'" (n. 8 above).
  27. Presentations by Barry Cockcroft, chief dental officer for England, at "Question Time on Fluoridation" held on October 20, November 18, and December 3, 2008. Organized by the South Central Strategic Health Authority Southampton, UK.
  28. Bazian Ltd., "Critical Appraisal of 'Fluoride in Drinking Water'" (n. 8 above).
  29. J. Newton, "Water Fluoridation-The Scientific Evidence." Report by Professor John Newton, Regional Director of Public Health, South Central Strategic Health Authority, UK, February 20,2009, http://fluoridealert.org/sha.sc.evidenceleb09.pdf.
  30. Bazian Ltd., "Critical Appraisal of 'Fluoride in Drinking Water'" (n. 8 above).
  31. Integrated Risk Information System on Fluorine (soluble fluoride) (n. 18 above).
  32. Y. Li et al., "Effect of Long-Term Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water on Risks of Bone Fractures" (n. 10 above).
  33. P. P. Bachinskii, 0. A. Gutsalenko, N. D. Naryzhniuk, et al., "Action of Fluoride on the Function of the Pituitary-thyroid System of Healthy Persons and Patients with Thyroid Disorders" (article in Russian), Problemy Endokrinologii (Mosk) 31, no. 6 (1985): 25-29. English translation at http://www.fluoridealert.org/bachinskii.1985.pdf.
  34. K. M. Thiessen, "Water Fluoridation: Suggested Issues for Consideration," December 13, 2006, http://www.fluoridealert.org/thiessen-statement.pdf.
  35. K. M. Thiessen, "Comments on: Prioritization of Chemicals for Carcinogen Identification Committee Review. Proposed Chemicals for Committee Consideration and Consultation. Proposition 65 Implementation, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency," May 5, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/ca/thiessen-2009.pdf.
  36. K. M. Thiessen, "Water Fluoridation: Suggested Issues for Consideration" (n. 34 above).
  37. K. M. Thiessen, "Comments on: Prioritization of Chemicals for Carcinogen Identification Committee Review" (n. 35 above).
  38. K. M. Thiessen, "Water Fluoridation: Suggested Issues for Consideration" (n. 34 above).
  39. E. B. Bassin, D. Wypij, R. B. Davis, and M. A. Mittleman, "Age-specific Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water and Osteosarcoma (United States)," Cancer Causes and Control 17, no. 4 (May 2006): 421-28.

Chapter 15: Fluoride and the Brain

  1. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004), 27.
  2. B. Spittle, "Psychopharmacology of Fluoride: A Review," International Clinical Psychopharmacology 9, no. 2 (1994): 79-82.
  3. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception, 23-24 (n. 1 above).
  4. P. J. Mullenix, P. K. Denbesten, A. Schunior, and W. J. Kernan, "Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats," Neurotoxicology and Teratology 17, no. 2 (1995): 169-77.
  5. P. J. Mullenix, personal communication with Paul Connett, October 24,1996.
  6. H. C. Hodge and F. A. Smith, Fluorine Chemistry, vol. 4 (New York and London: Academic Press, 1965).
  7. B. Spittle, "Psychopharmacology of Fluoride: A Review" (n. 2 above).
  8. G. L. Waldbott, A. W. Burgstahler, and H. L. McKinney, Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma (Lawrence, Kansas: Coronado Press, 1978).
  9. X. S. Li, J. L. Zhi, and R.O. Gao, "Effect of Fluoride Exposure on Intelligence in Children," Fluoride 28, no. 4 (19'95): 189-92, http://fluoridealert.org/scher/li-1995.pdf.
  10. L. B. Zhao, G. H. Liang, D. N. Zhang, and X. R. Wu, "Effect of High-Fluoride Water Supply on Children's Intelligence," Fluoride 29, no. 4 (1996): 190-92, http://fluoridealert.org/scher/zhao-1996.pdf.
  11. P. J. Mullenix et al., "Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats" (n. 4 above)
  12. G. M. Whitford, "The Metabolism and Toxicity of Fluoride," in: Monographs in Oral Science, vol. 16,2nd rev. ed. (New York: Karger, 1996).
  13. J. X. Zhai, Z. Y. Guo, C. L. Hu, et al., "Studies on Fluoride Concentration and Cholinesterase Activity in Rat Hippocampus" (article in Chinese), Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi 21, no. 2 (2003): 102-4.
  14. I. Inkielewicz and J. Krechniak, "Fluoride Content in Soft Tissues and Urine of Rats Exposed to Sodium Fluoride in Drinking Water," Fluoride 36, no. 4 (2003): 263-66, http://www.fluoride-journal.com/03-36-4/364-263.pdf.
  15. M. L. Vani and K. P. Reddy, "Effects of Fluoride Accumulation on Some Enzymes of Brain and Gastrocnemius Muscle of Mice," Fluoride 33, no. 1 (2000): 17-26, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/331/filts/FJ2000_v33_nl_p17-26.pdf.
  16. K. Chirumari and P. K. Reddy, "Dose-Dependent Effects of Fluoride on Neurochemical Milieu in the Hippocampus and Neocortex of Rat Brain," Fluoride 40, no. 2 (2007): 101-10, http://www.fluoridereseareh.org/402/files/FJ2007_v40_n2 _p101-110.pdf.
  17. J. A. Varner, K. F. Jensen, W. Horvath, and R. L. Isaacson, "Chronic Administration of Aluminum-Fluoride or Sodium-Fluoride to Rats in Drinking Water: Alterations in Neuronal and Cerebrovascular Integrity," Brain Research 784, no. 1-2 (1998): 284-98. Excerpts at http://www.fluofide-journal.com/98-31-2/31291-95.htm.
  18. A. Lubkowska, D. Chlubek, A. Machoy-Mokrzyska, et al., "Concentrations of Fluorine, Aluminum and Magnesium in some Structures of the Central Nervous System of Rats Exposed to Aluminum and Fluorine in Drinking Water" (article in Polish), Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis 50, suppl. 1 (2004): 73-76;
  19. Y. M. Shivarajashankara, A. R. Shivashankara, and P. G. Bhat, et al., "Histological Changes in the Brain of Young Fluoride-Intoxicated Rats," Fluoride 35, no. 1 (2002): 12-21, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/351/files/FJ2002_v35_nl_p12-21.pdf.
  20. Letter from Gary M. Whitford, PhD, DMD, Medical College of Georgia, to David M. Apanian, PE, Centers for Disease Control, Division of Oral Health, Chamblee, GA, March 28,1997. Letter begins, "As requested, I have reviewed the paper by Mullenix et al. (Neurotoxicology and Teratology 17: 169-177) and offer the following critique . . ."
  21. P. J. Mullenix, "Central Nervous System Damage from Fluorides," September 14, 1998, http://www.fluoridation.com/brain2.htm.
  22. R. M. M. Sawan, G. A. S. Leite, M. C. P. Saraiva, et al., "Fluoride Increases Lead Concentrations in Whole Blood and in Calcified Tissues from Lead-Exposed Rats," Toxicology 271, no. 1-2 (2010): 21-26.
  23. Z. Z. Guan, Y. N. Wang, K. Q. Xiao, et al., "Influence of Chronic Fluorosis on Membrane Lipids in Rat Brain," Neurotoxicology and Teratology 20, no. 5 (1998): 537-42.
  24. Q Gao, Y. J. Liu, and Z. Z. Guan, "Decreased Learning and Memory Ability in Rats with Fluorosis: Increased Oxidative Stress and Reduced Cholinesterase Activity," Fluoride 42, no. 4 (2009): 277-85, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/424/files/FJ2009 v42_n4_p277-285.pdf.
  25. Y. J. Liu, 0, Gao, C. X. Wu, and Z. Z. Guan, 'Alterations of nAChRs and ERK1/2 in the Brains of Rats with Chronic Fluorosis and Their Connections with the Decreased Capacity of Learning and Memory," Toxicology Letters 192, no. 3 (2010): 324-29.
  26. J. X. Zhai et al., "Studies on Fluoride Concentration and Cholinesterase Activity in Rat Hippocampus" (n. 13 above).
  27. I. Inkielewicz and J. Krechniak, "Fluoride Content in Soft Tissues and Urine of Rats Exposed to Sodium Fluoride in Drinking Water" (n. 14 above).
  28. J. A. Varner et al., "Chronic Administration of Aluminum-Fluoride or Sodium-Fluoride to Rats in Drinking Water" (n. 17 above).
  29. M. Bhatnagar, P. Rao, J. Sushma, and R. Bhatnagar, "Neurotoxicity of Fluoride: Neurodegeneration in Hippocampus of Female Mice," Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 40, no. 5 (2002): 546-54.
  30. Z. Zhang, X. Shen, and X. Xu, "Effects of Selenium on the Damage of Learning-Memory Ability of Mice Induced by Fluoride" (article in Chinese), Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 30, no. 3 (2001): 144-46.
  31. G. B. van der Voet, 0. Schijns, and E A. de Wolff; "Fluoride Enhances the Effect of Aluminium Chloride on Interconnections Between Aggregates of Hippocampal Neurons," Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry 107, no. 1 (1999): 15-21.
  32. A. R. Kay, R. Miles, and R. K. Wong, "Intracellular Fluoride Alters the Kinetic Properties of Calcium Currents Facilitating the Investigation of Synaptic Events in Hippocampal Neurons," The Journal of Neuroscience 6, no. 10 (1986): 2915-20, http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/reprint/6/10/2915.
  33. Z. Zhang, X. Xu, X. Shen, and X. Xu, "Effect of Fluoride Exposure on Synaptic Structure of Brain Areas Related to Learning-memory in Mice," Fluoride 41, no. 2 (2008): 139-43 (originally published in 1999 in Journal of Hygiene Research [China]), http://www.fluorideresearch.org/412/files/FJ2008_v41_n2_p139-143.pdf.
  34. W. Zhu, J. Zhang, and Z. Zhang, "Effects of Fluoride on Synaptic Membrane Fluidity and PSD-95 Expression Level in Rat Hippocampus," Biological Trace Element Research, March 2010 (in press).
  35. M. Pereira, P. A. Dombrowski, E. M. Losso, et al., "Memory Impairment Induced by Sodium Fluoride Is Associated with Changes in Brain Monoamine Levels," Neurotoxicity Research, December 2009 (in press).
  36. M. Zhang, A. Wang, T Xia, and P. He, "Effects of Fluoride on DNA Damage, S-phase Cell-cycle Arrest and the Expression of NF-KappaB in Primary Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons," Toxicology Letters 179, no. 1 (2008): 1-5.
  37. T. Xia, M. Zhang, W. H. He, et al., "Effects of Fluoride on Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules mRNA and Protein Expression Levels in Primary Rat Hippocampal Neurons" (article in Chinese), Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 41, no. 6 (2007): 475-78.
  38. M. Zhang, A. Wang, W. He, et al., "Effects of Fluoride on the Expression of NCAM, Oxidative Stress, and Apoptosis in Primary Cultured Hippocampal Neurons," Toxicology 236, no. 3 (2007): 208-16.
  39. R. L. Isaacson, J. A. Varner, and K. F. Jensen, "Toxin-Induced Blood Vessel Inclusions Caused by the Chronic Administration of Aluminum and Sodium Fluoride and Their Implications for Dementia," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 825 (1997): 152-66.
  40. J. A. Varner et al, "Chronic Administration of Aluminum-Fluoride or Sodium-Fluoride to Rats in Drinking Water" (n. 17 above).
  41. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards, chapter 7 (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  42. Ibid., 222, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=222#
  43. Ibid., 223, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=223.
  44. Ibid., 8, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=8.
  45. Q. Xiang, Y. Liang, L. Chen, et al., "Effect of Fluoride in Drinking Water on Children's Intelligence," Fluoride 36, no. 2 (2003): 84-94, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/362/files/FJ2003_v36_n2_p84-94.pdf.
  46. Q. Xiang, Y. Liang, M. Zhou, and H. Zang, "Blood Lead of Children in Wamiao-Xinhuai Intelligence Study" (letter), Fluoride 36, no. 3 (2003): 198-9, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/363/files/FJ2003_v36_n3_p198-199.pdf.
  47. F. F. Lin, Aihaiti, H. X. Zhao, et al., "The Relationship of a Low-Iodine and High-Fluoride Environment to Subclinical Cretinism in Xinjiang," Xinjiang Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research; Office of Leading Group for Endemic Disease Control of Hetian Prefectural Committee of the Communist Party of China; and County Health and Epidemic Prevention Station, Yutian, Xinjiang, Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter 7 (1991): 3, http://fluoridealert.org/scher/lin-1991.pdfi also see http://www.fluoridealert.org/IDD.htm.
  48. Q. Xiang et al., "Blood Lead of Children in Wamiao-Xinhuai Intelligence Study" (n. 48 above).
  49. Q. Xiang et al., "Effect of Fluoride in Drinking Water on Children's Intelligence" (n. 47 above).
  50. H. F. Pollick, "Water Fluoridation and the Environment: Current Perspective in the United States," International Journal of Occupational Environmental Health 10 (2004): 343-50.
  51. P. Connett, "Scientific Evidence Fails to Support Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies" (letter), International Journal of Occupational; Environmental Health 11 (2005): 215-16.
  52. H. F. Pollick, "Scientific Evidence Continues to Support Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies" (letter), International Journal of Occupational Environmental Health 11 (2005): 322-26.
  53. P. Connett, "Water Fluoridation—A Public Health Hazard" (letter), International Journal of Occupational Environmental Health 12 (2006): 88-90.
  54. H. F. Pollick, "Concerns about Water Fluoridation, IQ and Osteosarcoma Lack Credible Evidence" (letter), International Journal of Occupational Environmental Health 12 (2006): 91-94.
  55. F. T Shannon, D. M. Fergusson, and L. J. Horwood, "Exposure to Fluoridated Water Supplies and Child Behaviour," New Zealand Medical Journal 99, no. 803 (1986): 416-18.
  56. Y. Yu, W. Yang, Z. Dong, et al., "Neurotransmitter and Receptor Changes in the Brains of Fetuses from Areas of Endemic Fluorosis," Fluoride 41, no. 2 (2008): 134-38 (originally published in 1996 in Chinese Journal of Endemiology), http://www.fluorideresearch.org/412/files/FJ2008_v41_n2_p134-138.pdf.
  57. L. Du, C. Wan, X. Cao, and J. Liu, "The Effect of Fluorine on the Developing Human Brain," Fluoride 41, no. 4 (2008): 327-30 (originally published in 1992 in Chinese Journal of Pathology), http://www.fluorideresearch.org/414/files/FJ2008_v41_ n4_p327-330.pdf.
  58. H. He, Z. Cheng, and W. Q Liu, "Effects of Fluorine on the Human Fetus," Fluoride 41, no. 4 (2008): 321-26 (originally published in 1989 in Chinese Journal of Control of Endemic Diseases), http://www.fluorideresearch.org/414/files/FJ2008_v41_n4_p321-326.pdf.
  59. L. Du et al., "The Effect of Fluorine on the Developing Human Brain" (n. 59 above).
  60. Z. Guo, Y. He, and Q Zhu, "Research on the Neurobehavioural Function of Workers Occupationally Exposed to Fluoride," Fluoride 41, no. 2 (2008): 152-55 (originally published in 2001 in Industrial Health and Occupational Disease [China]), http://www.fluorideresearch.org/412/files/FJ2008_v41_n2_p152-155.pdf.
  61. J. Li , L. Yao, Q, L. Shao, and C. Y. Wu, "Effects of High Fluoride on Neonatal Neurobehavioral Development," Fluoride 41, no. 2 (2008): 165-70 (originally published in 2004 in Chinese Journal of Endemiology), http://www.fluorideresearch.org/412/files/FJ2008_v41_n2_p165-170.pdf.
  62. B. Spittle, "Psychopharmacology of Fluoride: A Review" (n. 2 above).
  63. P. J. Mullenix et al., "Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats" (n. 4 above).
  64. Z. Z. Guan et al., "Influence of Chronic Fluorosis on Membrane Lipids in Rat Brain" (n. 23 above).
  65. X. S. Li et al., "Effect of Fluoride Exposure on Intelligence in Children" (n. 9 above).
  66. L. B. Zhao et al., "Effect of High-Fluoride Water Supply on Children's Intelligence" (n. 10 above).
  67. Medical Research Council, Water Fluoridation and Health, 'Working Group Report, UK, September 2002, http://fluoridealert.org/re/mrc-2002.pdf.
  68. L. Morgan, E. Allred, M. Tavares, et al., "Investigation of the Possible Associations Between Fluorosis, Fluoride Exposure, and Childhood Behavior Problems," Pediatric Dentistry 20, no. 4 (1998): 244-52.
  69. F. T. Shannon et al., "Exposure to Fluoridated Water Supplies and Child Behaviour" (n. 57 above).
  70. T Schettler, J. Stein, E Reich, et al., In Harm's Way: Toxic Threats to Child Development. A report by the Greater Boston Physicians for Social Responsibility, prepared for a joint project with Clean Water Fund, May 2000. Excerpts at http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/brain/psr.html.
  71. P. J. Mullenix et al., "Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats" (n. 4 above).
  72. X. L. Zhao and J. H. Wu, "Actions of Sodium Fluoride on Acetylcholinesterase Activities in Rats," Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 11, no. 1 (1998): 1-6.
  73. X. S. Li et al., "Effect of Fluoride Exposure on Intelligence in Children" (n. 9 above).
  74. L. B. Zhao et al., "Effect of High-Fluoride Water Supply on Children's Intelligence" (n. 10 above).
  75. T Schettler et al., In Harm's Way, 92 (n. 72 above).
  76. P. Grandjean and P. J. Landrigan, "Developmental Neurotoxicity of Industrial Chemicals," The Lancet 368, no. 9553 (2006): 2167-78.
  77. R. D. Masters and M. J. Coplan, "Water Treatment with Silicofluorides and Lead Toxicity," International Journal of Environmental Studies 56, no. 4 (1999): 435-49.
  78. R. D. Masters, M. J. Coplan, B. T Hone, and J. E. Dykes, "Association of Silicofluoride Treated Water with Elevated Blood Lead," Neurotoxicology 21, no. 6 (2000): 1091-99.
  79. R. M. M. Sawan et al., "Fluoride Increases Lead Concentrations in Whole Blood and in Calcified Tissues from Lead-exposed Rats" (n. 22 above).
  80. Bazian Ltd., "Independent Critical Appraisal of Selected Studies Reporting an Association between Fluoride in Drinking Water and IQ" A report for South Central Strategic Health Authority, UK, delivery date: February 11, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/iq.bazian.feb09.pdf.
  81. Q. Xiang et al., "Effect of Fluoride in Drinking Water on Children's Intelligence" (n. 47 above).
  82. J. Newton, "Water Fluoridation—The Scientific Evidence." Report by Professor John Newton, Regional Director of Public Health, South Central Strategic Health Authority, UK, February 20, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/sha.sc.evidence.feb09.pdf.

Chapter 16: Fluoride and the Endocrine System

  1. Forum on Fluoridation (Dublin, Ireland: Stationery Office, 2002), http://fluoridealert.org/re/fluoridation.forum.2002.pdf.
  2. Medical Research Council, Water Fluoridation and Health, Working Group Report, UK, September 2002, http://fluoridealert.org/re/mrc-2002.pdf.
  3. J. Fawell, K. Bailey, J. Chilton, et al., Fluoride in Drinking-Water, World Health Organization (London and Seattle: IWA Publishing, 2006).
  4. National Health and Medical Research Council, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation, reference no. EH41, Australian Government, December 27, 2007, http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/eh4lsyn.htm.
  5. Health Canada, "Findings and Recommendations of the Fluoride Expert Panel (January 2007)," April 2008, http://fluoridealert.org/re/canada.fluoride.expert.panel.2007.pdf.
  6. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), 266, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030910128X&page=266.
  7. E. Maumené, "Expérience pour Déterminer L'action des Florures sur L'économie Animale," Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences 39 (1854): 538.
  8. Parents of Fluoride Poisoned Children, "Thyroid History. History of the Fluoride/Iodine Antagonism," http://www.bruha.com/pfpc/html/Myroid_history.html.
  9. D. G. Steyn, "Fluorine and Endemic Goitre," South African Medical Journal 22, no. 16 (1948): 525-26.
  10. D. G. Steyn et al., "Endemic Goitre in the Union of South Africa and Some Neighbouring Territories," Union of South Africa, Department of Nutrition, 1955.
  11. D. C. Wilson, "Fluorine in Aetiology of Endemic Goiter," The Lancet 237, no. 6129 (1941): 211-12.
  12. T. K. Day and P. R. Powell-Jackson, "Fluoride, Water Hardness, and Endemic Goiter," The Lancet 1, no. 7761 (1972): 1135-38.
  13. A. O. Obel, "Goitre and Fluorosis in Kenya," East African Medical Journal 59, no. 6 (1982): 363-65.
  14. V. K. Desai, D. M. Solanki, and R. K. Banal, "Epidemiological Study of Goitre in Endemic Fluorosis District of Gujarat," Fluoride 26, no. 3 (1993): 187-90.
  15. P. L. Jooste, M. J. Weight, J. A. Kriek, and A. J. Louw, "Endemic Goitre in the Absence of Iodine Deficiency in Schoolchildren of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa," European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, no. 1 (1999): 8-12.
  16. H. Burgi, L. Siebenhuner, and E. Miloni, "Fluorine and Thyroid Gland Function: A Review of the Literature," Klinische Wochenschrift 62, no. 12 (1984): 564-69.
  17. L. Goldemberg, "Action Physiologique des Fluorures," Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de ses Filiales (Paris) 95 (1926): 1169.
  18. L. Goldemberg, "Traitement de la Maladie de Basedow et de l'Hyperthyroidisme par le Fluor," La Presse Médicale 102 (1930): 1751.
  19. L. Goldemberg, "Comment Agiraient-ils Therapeutiquement les Fluoers dans le Goitre Exopthalmique et dans L'Hyperthyroidisme," La Semana Médica 39 (1932): 1659.
  20. W. May, "Antagonismus Zwischen Jod and Fluor im Organismus," Klinische Wochenschrift 14 (1935): 790-92.
  21. W. May, "Behandlung the Hyperthyreosen Einschliesslich des Schweren Genuinen Morbus Basedow mit Fluor," Klinische Wochenschrift 16 (1937): 562-64.
  22. W. Orlowski, "Sur la Valeur Therapeutique du Sang Animal du Bore et du Fluor dans la Maladie de Basedow," La Presse Medicale 42 (1932): 836-37.
  23. P. Galletti and G. Joyet, "Effect of Fluorine on Thyroidal Iodine Metabolism in Hyperthyroidism," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 18, no. 10 (1958): 1102-10.
  24. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, table 11, page 17, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, February 1991, http://health.gov/environment/ReviewofFluoride/.
  25. P. P. Bachinskii, 0. A. Gutsalenko, N. D. Naryzhniuk, et al., "Action of Fluoride on the Function of the Pituitary-thyroid System of Helthy Persons and Patients with Thyroid Disorders" (article in Russian), Problemy Endokrinologii (Mosk) 31, no. 6 (1985): 25-29. English translation at http://www.fluoridealert.org/bachinskii.1985.pdf
  26. N. D. Mikhailets, M. I. Balabolkin, V. A. Rakitin, and I. P. Danilov, "Thyroid Function During Prolonged Exposure to Fluorides" (article in Russian), Problemy Endokrinologii (Mosk) 42, no. 1 (1996): 6-9.
  27. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 263 (n. 6 above).
  28. M. Li, G. Ma, S. C. Boyages, and C. J. Eastman, "Re-emergence of Iodine Deficiency in Australia," Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10, no. 3 (2001): 200-203.
  29. F. F. Lin, Aihaiti, H. X. Zhao, et al., "The Relationship of a Low-Iodine and High-Fluoride Environment to Subclinical Cretinism in Xinjiang," Xinjiang Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research; Office of Leading Group for Endemic Disease Control of Hetian Prefectural Committee of the Communist Party of China; and County Health and Epidemic Prevention Station, Yutian, Xinjiang, Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter 7 (1991): 3, http://fluorideakrt.org/scher/lin-1991.pdf; also see http://www.fluoridealertorg/IDD.him.
  30. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, chapter 8 (n. 6 above).
  31. Ibid., 234, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=234.
  32. Ibid., 262, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=262.
  33. Ibid., 263, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=263.
  34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Iodine Level, United States, 2000," National Center for Health Statistics, 2002, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/iodine.htm.
  35. P. R. Larsen and T. F. Davies, in: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 10th ed., ed. Larsen et al., (Philadelphia: Saunders, 2002).
  36. D. Fagin, "Second Thoughts on Fluoride," Scientific American 298, no. 1 (January 2008): 74-81. Excerpts at http://www.fluoridealert.org/sc.am.jan.2008.html.
  37. M. J. Schneider, S. N. Fiering, S. E. Pallud, et al., "Targeted Disruption of the Type 2 Selenodeiodinase Gene (DIO2) Results in a Phenotype of Pituitary Resistance to T4," Molecular Endocrinology 15, no. 12 (2001): 2137-48.
  38. F. F. Lin et al., "The Relationship of a Low-Iodine and High-Fluoride Environment to Subclinical Cretinism in Xinjiang" (n. 31 above).
  39. A. K. Susheela, M. Bhatnagar, K. Vig, and N. K. Mondal, "Excess Fluoride Ingestion and Thyroid Hormone Derangements in Children Living in Delhi, India," Fluoride 38, no. 2 (2005): 98-108, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/382/files/38298-108.pdf.
  40. D. L. St. Germain, V. A. Galton, and A. Hernandez, "Mini review: Defining the Roles of the Iodothyronine Deiodinases: Current Concepts and Challenges," Endocrinology 150, no. 3 (2009): 1097-107.
  41. C. Clinch, "Fluoride Interactions with Iodine and Iodide: Implications for Breast Health," Fluoride 42, no. 2 (2009): 75-87, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/422/files/FJ2009_v42_n2_p075-087.pdf.
  42. N. D. Mikhailets et al., "Thyroid Function During Prolonged Exposure to Fluorides" (n. 27 above).
  43. S. Tezelman, A. E. Siperstein, 0,Y. Duh, et al., "Desensitization of Adenylate Cyclase in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Transfected with Human Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Receptor," Endocrinology 134, no. 3 (1994): 1561-69.
  44. "British Fluoridation Society Statement (January 2006) on the Absence of an Association between Water Fluoridation and Thyroid Disorders," available online as of May 2, 2010, http://www.bfsweb.org/facts/sof_effects/statementofflo.htm.
  45. M. S. McDonagh, P. F. Whiting, P. M. Wilson, et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (2000): 855-59, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/855. Note: The full report that this paper summarizes is commonly known as the York Review and is accessible at http://fluoridealert.org/re/york.review.2000.pdf.)
  46. World Health Organization, Fluorides, Environmental Health Criteria 227, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002, http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc227.htm.
  47. Royal College of Physieians of London, Fluoride, Teeth and Health (Kent, UK: Pitman Medical Publishing Co, Ltd., 1976).
  48. American Dental Association, "Fluoridation Facts," page 34, an update commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of community water fluoridation, 2005, https://www.ada.org/sections/professionalResources/pdfs/fluoridation_facts.pdf48.
  49. N. C. Leone, E. C. Leatherwood, I. M. Petrie, and L. Lieberman, "Effect of Fluoride on Thyroid Gland: Clinical Study," Journal of the American Dental Association 69 (1964): 179-80.
  50. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 236 (n. 6 above).
  51. J. Luke, "The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland," PhD thesis, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 1997. Thesis online, with permission of author, at http://fluoridealert.org/luke-1997.pdf.
  52. J. Luke, "Fluoride Deposition in the Aged Human Pineal Gland," Caries Research 35, no. 2 (2001): 125-28.
  53. J. Luke, "The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland" (n. 53 above).
  54. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 264 (n. 6 above).
  55. E. R. Schlesinger, D. E. Overton, H. C. Chase, and K. T. Cantwell, "Newburgh-Kingston Caries-Fluorine Study XIII. Pediatric Findings after Ten Years," Journal of the American Dental Association 52, no. 3 (1956): 296-306.
  56. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 260 (n. 6 above).

Chapter 17: Fluoride and Bone

  1. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides," The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 22 (1963): 111-17, http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type-18thd=784060&jid=PNS8cvolumeId =22&issueld=01 &aid=784052.
  2. J. Caffey, "On Fibrous Defects in Cortical Walls: Their Radiological Appearance, Structure, Prevalence, Natural Course, and Diagnostic Significance," in Advances in Pediatrics, ed. S. Z. Levin, (New York: Interscience, 1955).
  3. E. R. Schlesinger, D E Overton, H. C. Chase, and K. T Cantwell, "Newburgh-Kingston Caries-Fluorine Study XIII. Pediatric Findings after Ten Years," Journal of the American Dental Association 52, no. 3 (1956): 296-306.
  4. M. T Alarcon-Herrera, I. R. Martin-Dominguez, R. Trejo-Vazquez, et at, "Well Water Fluoride, Dental Fluorosis, Bone Fractures in the Guadiana Valley of Mexico," Fluoride 34, no. 2 (2001): 139-49, http://www.fluoride-journal.com/01-34-2/342-139.pdf.
  5. K. E. Heller, S. A. Eklund, and B. A. Burt, "Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis at Varying Water Fluoride Concentrations," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 57, no. 3 (1997): 136-43.
  6. E. D. Beltran-Aguilar, B. F. Gooch, A. Kingman, et al, "Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis—United States, 1988-1994 and 1999-2002," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54, no. 3 (August 26, 2005): 1-44, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5403alltm.
  7. A. Singh, S. S. Jolly, B. C. Bansal, and C. C. Mathur, "Endemic Fluorosis: Epidemiological, Clinical and Biochemical Study of Chronic Fluoride Intoxication in Punjab (India)," Medicine 42 (1963): 229-46.
  8. J. Franke, F. Rath, H. Runge, et al., "Industrial Fluorosis," Fluoride 8, no. 2 (1975): 61-83, http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/franke-1975.pdf.
  9. S. P. S. Teotia, M. Teotia, and N. P. S. Teotia, "Symposium on the Non-Skeletal Phase of Chronic Fluorosis: The Joints," Fluoride 9, no. 1 (1976): 19-24, http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/teotia-1976.pdf.
  10. B. W. Carnow and S. A. Conibear, "Industrial Fluorosis," Fluoride 14, no. 4 (1981): 172-81, http://fluoridealert.org/re/carnow.1981.pdf.
  11. E. Czerwinski, J. Nowak, D. Dabrowska, et al., "Bone and Joint Pathology in Fluoride-Exposed Workers," Archives of Environmental Health 43, no. 5 (1988): 340-43.
  12. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, February 1991, http://health.gov/environment/ReviewofFluoride/.
  13. B. Hileman, "Fluoridation of Water. Questions about Health Risks and Benefits Remain After More than 40 Years," Chemical & Engineering News (August 1, 1988): 26-42.
  14. American Medical News, "Arthritis Rates Increase," January 21, 2008, http://www.ama-assn.org/amednews/2008/01/21/hlbf0121.htm.
  15. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), 170-71, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=170 and http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=171.
  16. P. Connett and M. Connett. Invited presentation to the National Research Council of the National Academies committee reviewing the safety of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level (MCL) for fluoride in drinking water, 2003. This PowerPoint presentation is at http://www.fluorideakrt.org/nrc-final.ppt, and the paper supporting this presentation at http://www.fluoridealert.org/nrc-paper.pdf. See table 2, page 9.
  17. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides" (n. 1 above).
  18. R. Gupta, A. N. Kumar, S. Bandhu, and S. Gupta, "Skeletal Fluorosis Mimicking Seronegative Arthritis," Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology 36, no. 2 (2007): 154-55
  19. J. E. Hallanger Johnson, A. E. Kearns, P. M. Doran, et al., "Fluoride-Related Bone Disease Associated with Habitual Tea Consumption," Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82, no. 6 (2007): 719-24. Note: Erratum on dosage error in article text in: Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82, no. 8 (2007): 1017, http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/82/6/719.full.
  20. M. P. Whyte, W. G. Totty, V. T. Lim, and G. M. Whitford, "Skeletal Fluorosis from Instant Tea," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 23, no. 5 (2008): 759-69.
  21. M. J. Goldacre, S. E. Roberts, and D. Yeates, "Mortality after Admission to Hospital with Fractured Neck of Femur: Database Study," British Medical Journal 325, no. 7369 (2002): 868-69.
  22. R. A. Marotolli, L. F. Berkman, and L. M. Cooney, "Decline in Physical Function Following Hip Fracture," Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 40 (1992): 861-66.
  23. R. A. Marotolli, L. F. Berkman, L: Leo-Summers, and L. M. Cooney, "Predictors of Mortality and Institutionalisation after Hip Fracture: The New Haven EPESE Cohort," American Journal of Public Health 84(1994):1807-12, http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/84/11/1807.
  24. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 7,179-180 (n. 16 above).
  25. M. S. McDonagh, P. F. Whiting, P. M. Wilson, et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (2000): 855-59, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/855. Note: The full report that this paper summarizes is commonly known as the York Review and is accessible at http://fluoridealert.org/re/york.review.2000.pdf.
  26. National Health and Medical Research Council, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation, reference no. EH41, Australian Government, December 27, 2007, http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/eh4lsyn.htm.
  27. Connett and Connett, invited presentation to the National Research Council, table 4, page 17 (n. 18 above).
  28. Y. Li, C. Liang, C. W. Slemenda, et al., "Effect of Long-Term Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water on Risks of Bone Fractures," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16, no. 5 (2001): 932-39.
  29. World Health Organization, Fluorides, Environmental Health Criteria 227, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002, http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc227.htm.
  30. J. Fawell, K. Bailey, J. Chilton, et al., Fluoride in Drinking-Water, World Health Organization (London and Seattle: IWA Publishing, 2006).
  31. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, table 11, page 17, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, February 1991, http://health.gov/environment/ReviewofFluoride/.
  32. Y. Li et al., "Effect of Long-Term Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water on Risks of Bone Fractures" (n. 31 above).
  33. P. Kurttio, N. Gustaysson, T Vartiainen, and J. Pekkanen, "Exposure to Natural Fluoride in Well Water and Hip Fracture: A Cohort Analysis in Finland," American Journal of Epidemiology 150, no. 8 (1999): 817-24.
  34. M. T. Alarcon-Herrera et al., "Well Water Fluoride, Dental Fluorosis, Bone Fractures in the Guadiana Valley of Mexico" (n. 4 above).
  35. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 164 (n. 16 above), http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=164.
  36. National Resource Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 10 (n. 16 above), http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=10.

Chapter 18: Fluoride and Osteosarcoma

  1. National Research Council, Drinking Water and Health, National Academy of Sciences (Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1977), 388-89.
  2. J. Caffey, "On Fibrous Defects in Cortical Walls: Their Radiological Appearance, Structure, Prevalence, Natural Course, and Diagnostic Significance," in: Advances in Pediatrics, ed. S. Z. Levin (New York: Interscience, 1955).
  3. T Tsutsui, N. Suzuki, M. Ohmori, and H. Maizumi, "Cytotoxicity, Chromosome Aberrations and Unscheduled DNA Synthesis in Cultured Human Diploid Fibroblasts Induced by Sodium Fluoride," Mutation Research 139, no. 4 (1984): 193-98.
  4. W. J. Caspary, B. Myhr, L. Bowers, et at, "Mutagenic Activity of Fluorides in Mouse Lymphoma Cells," Mutation Research 187, no. 3 (1987): 165-80.
  5. K. Kishi and T Ishida, "Clastogenic Activity of Sodium Fluoride in Great Ape Cells," Mutation Research 301, no. 3 (1993): 183-88.
  6. M. Mihashi and T Tsutsui, "Clastogenic Activity of Sodium Fluoride to Rat Vertebral Body-Derived Cells in Culture," Mutation Research 368, no. 1 (1996): 7-13.
  7. D. Q. Wu and Y. Wu, "Micronucleus and Sister Chromatid Exchange Frequency in Endemic Fluorosis," Fluoride 28, no. 3 (1995): 125-27, http://fluoridealert.org/re/wu.1995.pdf.
  8. Z. Meng and B. Zhang, "Chromosomal Aberrations and Micronuclei in Lymphocytes of Workers at a Phosphate Fertilizer Factory," Mutation Research 393, no. 3 (1997): 283-38.
  9. S. Joseph and P. K. Gadhia, "Sister Chromatid Exchange Frequency and Chromosome Aberrations in Residents of Fluoride Endemic Regions of South Gujarat," Fluoride 33, no. 4 (2000): 154-58, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/334/files/FJ2000_v33_n4 _p154-158.pdf.
  10. K. H. Lau, J. R. Farley, T K. Freeman, and D. J. Baylink, "A Proposed Mechanism of the Mitogenic Action of Fluoride on Bone Cells: Inhibition of the Activity of an Osteoblastic Acid Phosphatase," Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 38, no. 9 (1989): 858-68.
  11. J. Caverzasio, G. Palmer, and J. P. Bonjour, "Fluoride: Mode of Action," Bone 22, no. 6 (1998): 585-89.
  12. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), 322, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=322.
  13. J. Yiamouyiannis and D. Burk, "Cancer from Our Drinking Water?" Congressional Record, proceedings and debates of the 94th Congress, First Session 121, no. 186 (December 16, 1975): H12731-34.
  14. J. Yiamouyiannis and D. Burk, "Fluoridation and Cancer-Age-Dependence of Cancer Mortality Related to Artificial Fluoridation," Fluoride 10, no. 3 (1977): 102-23.
  15. R. N. Hoover, F. W. McKay, et al., "Fluoridated Drinking Water and Subsequent Cancer Incidence and Mortality," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 57 (1976): 757-68.
  16. J. R. Graham, D. Burk, and P. Morin, "A Current Restatement and Continuing Reappraisal Concerning Demographic Variables in American Time-Trend Studies on Water Fluoridation and Human Cancer," Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 61 (1987): 138-46.
  17. J. R. Graham and P. J. Morin, "Highlights in North American Litigation During the Twentieth Century on Artificial Fluoridation of Public Water Supplies," Journal of Land Use & Environmental Law 14, no. 2 (1999): 195-248.
  18. P. J. Morin, J. R. Graham, and G. Parent, La Fluoration: Autopsie d'une Erreur Scientiflque (Quebec, Canada: Editions Berger, Eastman, 2005), chapters 6 and 7. Republished in English as Fluoridation: Autopsy of a Scientific Error, by the same publisher, in 2010.
  19. S. Begley, "Don't Drink the Water?" Newsweek, February 5, 1990.
  20. National Toxicology Program, "NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Sodium Fluoride (CAS no. 7682-49-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 (Drinking Water Studies)," Technical Report 393, NIH publ. no. 91-2848, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1990.
  21. J. Bucher, "Peer Review of Draft Technical Report of Long-Term Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies and Toxicity Study, Sodium Fluoride," pages 30-31, Research Triangle Park, NC, April 26, 1990.
  22. J. R. Bucher, M. R. Heitmancik, J. Toft, et al., "Results and Conclusions of the National Toxicology Program's Rodent Carcinogenicity Studies with Sodium Fluoride," International Journal of Cancer 48, no. 5 (1991): 733-37.
  23. J. K. Maurer, M. C.-Cheng, B. G. Boysen, and R. L. Anderson, "Two-Year Carcinogenicity Study of Sodium Fluoride in Rats," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 82, no. 13 (1990): 1118-26.
  24. Food & Drug Administration, "Dose Determination and Carcinogenicity Studies of Sodium Fluoride in Crl:CD-1 Mice and Crl:CD (Sprague Dawley)BR Rats, June 28, 1990," in: Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, pages D1—D7, U.S. Department of Health &Human Services, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, February 1991.
  25. Memorandum from William L. Marcus, PhD, Senior Science Advisor, Criteria & Standards Division, ODW (WH-550D) to Alan B. Hais, Acting Director, Criteria & Standards Division, ODW (WH-550D), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, May 1, 1990, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/cancer/ntp/marcus-memo.html.
  26. H. Ettel, "Reich Orders EPA to Reinstate Scientist," National Whistleblower Center, February 10, 1994, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/cancer/ntp/marcus3.html.
  27. Memorandum from William L. Marcus, Senior Science Advisor, Criteria & Standards Division, U.S. EPA Office of Drinking Water to Alan B. Hais (n. 27 above).
  28. J. W. Hirzy testimony on behalf of the National Treasury Employees Union Chapter 280, before the Subcommittee on Wildlife, Fisheries and Drinking Water, U.S. Senate, Washington DC, June 29, 2000. Video of testimony, "EPA Union Calls for Moratorium on Water Fluoridation," at http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=8903910725020792574#, transcript of testimony at http://www.fluoridealert.org/testimony.htm.
  29. Amicus curiae brief of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Headquarters Union (Local 2050, National Federation of Federal Employees), in: Natural Resources Defense Council v. Environmental Protection Agency and Lee M Thomas, Administrator. In the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, 1986, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/epa/nrdc/union-brief1986.pdf; see also http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/epa/nrdc/index.html. Note: The US EPA's Union for Professionals in Washington, DC, is now called National Treasury Employees Union Chapter 280.
  30. G. Lee, "Whistle-Blower Clears the Air," Washington Post, March 1, 1994.
  31. J. W. Hirzy, "Why EPA's Headquarters Professionals' Union Opposes Fluoridation," National Treasury Employees Union, Chapter 280, May 1, 1999, http://www.fluoridealert.org/hp-epa.htm.
  32. National Research Council, Drinking Water and Health (n. 1 above).
  33. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, February 1991, http://health.gov/environment/ReviewofFluoride/.
  34. P. Connett, C. Neurath, and M. Connett, "Revisiting the Fluoride-Osteorsarcoma Connection in the Context of Elise Bassin's Findings: Part I," submission to the National Research Council, National Academies Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water, March 2, 2005, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/cancer/fan-nrc.parttpdf.
  35. P. Connett, C. Neurath, and M-. Connett, "Revisiting the Fluoride-Osteosarcoma Connection in the Context of Elise Bassin's Findings: Part II." Submission to the National Research Council of the National Academies review panel on the Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water, March 21, 2005 (revised April 8, 2005), http:// www.fluoridealert.org/health/cancer/fan-nrc.part2.pdf.
  36. P. Connett, M. Connett, and C. Neurath, "The Fluoride-Osteosarcoma Connection Revisited," paper presented at the XXVIth conference of the International Society for Fluoride Research, Wiesbaden, Germany, Fluoride 38, no. 3 (2005): 227, abstract 10 at http://fluoridealert.org/scher/connett-2005c.pdf.
  37. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, abstract, page i (n. 35 above).
  38. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, appendix A and A-2 (n. 35 above).
  39. S. M. McGuire, E. D. Vanable, M. H. McGuire, J. A. Buckwalter, and C. W. Douglass, "Is There a Link between Fluoridated Water and Osteosarcoma?" Journal of the American Dental Association 122, no. 4 (1991): 38-45.
  40. P. D. Cohn, An Epidemiologic Report on Drinking Water and Fluoridation, New Jersey Department of Health, Environmental Health Service, November 8, 1992. Note: The original title of this report was A Brief Report on the Association of Drinking Water Fluoridation and the Incidence of Osteosarcoma Among Young Males. The word "osteosarcoma" was deleted from the title soon after the report was released; http://fluoridealert.org/cohn-1992.pdf.
  41. A. G. Glass and J. E Fraumeni, "Epidemiology of Bone Cancer in Children," Journal of the National Cancer Institute 44, no. 1 (1970): 187-99, as cited by P. D. Cohn (n. 51 above).
  42. L. S. Kaminsky, M. C. Mahoney, J. Leach, et al., "Fluoride Benefits and Risks of Exposure," Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine 1, no. 4 (1990): 261-81, as cited by P. D. Cohn (n. 51 above), http://cro.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/1/4/261.
  43. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks (n. 35 above), as cited by P. D. Cohn (n. 51 above).
  44. S. E. Hrudey, C. L. Soskolne, J. Berkel, and S. Fincham, "Drinking Water Fluoridation and Osteosarcoma," Canadian Journal of Public Health 81, no. 6 (1990): 415-16.
  45. M. C. Mahoney, P. C. Nasca, W. S. Burnett, and J. M. Meius, "Bone Cancer Incidence Rates in New York State: Time Trends and Fluoridated Drinking Water," American Journal of Public Health 81, no. 4 (1991): 475-79, http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/81/4/475.pdf.
  46. S. C. Freni and D. W. Gaylor,'"International Trends in the Incidence of Bone Cancer Are Not Related to Drinking Water Fluoridation," Cancer 70, no. 3 (1992): 611-18.
  47. K. H. Gelberg, E. E Fitzgerald,S. Hwang, and R. Dubrow, "Fluoride Exposure and Childhood Osteosarcoma: A Case-Control Study," American Journal of Public Health 85, no. 12 (1995): 1678-83, http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/85/12/1678.pdf.
  48. M. E. Moss, M. S. Kanarek, H. A. Anderson, et al., "Osteosarcoma, Seasonality, and Environmental Factors in Wisconsin, 1979-1989," Archives of Environmental Health 50, no. 3 (1995): 235-41.
  49. P. Connett et al., "Revisiting the Fluoride-Osteorsarcoma Connection in the Context of Elise Bassin's Findings: Part I" (n. 41 above).
  50. P. Connett et al., "Revisiting the Fluoride-Osteosarcoma Connection in the Context of Elise Bassin's Findings: Part II" (n. 42 above).
  51. E. B. Bassin, "Association Between Fluoride in Drinking Water During Growth and Development and the Incidence of Osteosarcoma for Children and Adolescents," DMSc thesis, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, 2001.
  52. P. D. Cohn, An Epidemiologic Report on Drinking Water and Fluoridation (n. 51 above).
  53. E. B. Bassin, "Association Between Fluoride in Drinking Water During Growth and Development and the Incidence of Osteosarcoma for Children and Adolescents" (n. 63 above).
  54. S. M. McGuire et al., "Is There a Link Between Fluoridated Water and Osteosarcoma?" (n. 46 above).
  55. S. Jones and K. Lennon, One in a Million. The Facts About Fluoridation, 2nd ed., published by the British Fluoridation Society, UK Public Health Association, British Dental Association, and the Faculty of Public Health, 2004, http://fluoridealert.org/re/uk.bfs.one-in-a-million.2004.pdf.
  56. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 12 above).
  57. Report submitted in 2004 by Chester W. Douglass to the National Research Council of the National Academies Committee: Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water [BEST-K-02-05-A], http://www.fluoridealert.org/harvard/docs/final-report.pdf.
  58. S. Begley, "Fluoridation, Cancer: Did Researchers Ask the Right Question?" Wall Street Journal, July 22, 2005, page B1.
  59. Harvard Medical School Office of Public Affairs, "Statement Concerning the Outcome of the Review into Allegations of Research Misconduct Involving Fluoride Research," News Release, August 15, 2006, http://web.med.harvard.edu/sites/RELEASES/html/8_15Douglass.html.
  60. E. B. Bassin, D. Wypij, R. B. Davis, and M. A. Mittleman, "Age-specific Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water and Osteosarcoma (United States)," Cancer Causes and Control 17, no. 4 (May 2006): 421-28.
  61. C. W. Douglass and K. Joshipura, "Caution Needed in Fluoride and Osteosarcoma Study" (letter), Cancer Causes & Control 17, no. 4 (May 2006): 481-82.
  62. E. B. Bassin, "Association Between Fluoride in Drinking Water During Growth and, Development and the Incidence of Ostosarcoma for Children and Adolescents" (n. 63 above).
  63. E. B. Bassin et al., "Age-specific Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water and Osteosarcoma (United States)" (n. 72 above).
  64. C. Neurath and P. Connett, "Current Epidemiological Research on Link between Fluoride and Osteosarcoma," Fluoride 41, no. 3 (2008): 241-42 (abstracts from the XXVIIIth Conference of the International Society for Fluoride Research), http://www.fluorideresearch.org/413/files/FJ2008_v41_n3_p233-258.pdf.
  65. National Health and Medical Research Council, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation, reference no. EH41, Australian Government, December 27, 2007, http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/eh4lsyn.hthi.
  66. South Central Strategic Health Authority, "Public Consultation on the Proposal for Water Fluoridation in Southampton and Parts of Southwest Hampshire," September 2008, pages 18-19, http://fluoridealert.org/re/uk.sha.brochure.2008.pdf.
  67. Video of the presentation by Dr. Peter Cooney, Chief Dental Officer of Canada, on the case for fluoridation of drinking water in Dryden, Ontario, Canada, April 1, 2008, http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=48884717569159538338chl=en.
  68. California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, "Announcement of Chemicals Selected by OEHHA for Consideration for Listing by the Carcinogen Identification Committee and Request for Relevant Information on the Carcinogenic Hazards of These Chemicals," California Environmental Protection Agency, October 15, 2009, http://www.oehha.ca.gov/prop65/CRNR_notices/state_listing/data_callin/ sqe101509.html.
  69. C. Neurath and P. Connett, "Evidence Supporting Prioritizing Fluoride for Carcinogenicity Hazard Identification," submission to the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment and Carcinogenicity Identification Committee, Prioritization of Chemicals for Carcinogen Identification Committee Review, California Environmental Protection Agency, May 5, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/neurath-2009.may5.pdf.
  70. Environmental Working Group, "Research on PFOA and Fluoride Carcinogenicity Supports Their High Priority Review for Proposition 65 Listing," submission to the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, Prioritization of Chemicals for Carcinogen Identification Committee Review, California Environmental Protection Agency, May 5, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/ca/ewg-may2009.pdf.
  71. K. M. Thiessen, "Comments on Prioritization of Chemicals for Carcinogen Identification Committee Review. Proposed Chemicals for Committee Consideration and Consultation. March 2009," submission to: Proposition 65 Implementation, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, from Kathleen M. Thiessen, PhD, SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., Center for Risk Analysis, Oak Ridge, TN, May 5, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/ca/thiessen-2009.pdf.
  72. California Dental Association, "CDA Receives ADA State Public Affairs Program Grants," executive bulletin from the desk of Executive Director Peter DuBois, January 12, 2010.
  73. California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, "Announcement of Chemicals Selected by OEHHA" (n. 81 above).

Chapter 19: Fluoride and the Kidneys, and Other Health Issues

  1. C. E Hongslo, J. K. Hongslo, and R. I. Holland, "Fluoride Sensitivity of Cells from Different Organs,"Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica 46, no. 1 (1980): 73-77.
  2. J. Ekstrand, "Fluoride Intake," in: Fluoride in Dentistry, 2nd ed., ed. 0. Fejerskov, J. Ekstrand, and B. Burt (Denmark: Munksgaard, 1996), 40-52.
  3. G. M. Whitford, "The Metabolism and Toxicity of Fluoride," in: Monographs in Oral Science, vol. 16, 2nd rev. ed. (New York: Karger, 1996).
  4. R. I. Mazze, "Methoxyflurane Nephropathy," Environmental Health Perspectives 15 (1976): 111-19, http://fluoridealert.org/re/mazze-1976.pdf.
  5. J. Marier and D. Rose, Environmental Fluoride, Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality, NRCC no. 16081, National Research Council of Canada, 1977. A large part of this report can be found at http://www.fluoridealert.org/NRC-Fluoride.htm.
  6. M. Nuscheler, P. Conzen, D. Schwender, and K. Peter, "Fluoride-Induced Nephrotoxicity: Fact or Fiction?" (article in German), Der Anaesthesist 45, suppl. 1 (1996): S32-40.
  7. S. Partanen, "Inhibition of Human Renal Acid Phosphatases by Nephrotoxic Micromolar Concentrations of Fluoride," Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology 54, no. 3 (2002): 231-37.
  8. R. I. Mazze, "Fluorinated Anesthetic Nephrotoxicity: An Update," Canadian Anaesthetists' Society Journal 31 (1984): S16-22.
  9. J. A. Varner, K. F. Jensen, W. Horvath, and R. L. Isaacson, "Chronic Administration of Aluminum-Fluoride or Sodium-Fluoride to Rats in Drinking Water: Alterations in Neuronal and Cerebrovascular Integrity," Brain Research 784, no. 1-2 (1998): 284-98. Extended excerpts at http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-2/31291-95.htm.
  10. C. M. McCay, W. F. Ramseyer, and C. A. Smith, "Effect of Sodium Fluoride Administration on Body Changes in Old Rats," Journal of Gerontology 12, no. 1 (1957): 14-19.
  11. S. L. Manocha, H. Warner, and Z. L. Olkowski, "Cytochemical Response of Kidney, Liver and Nervous System to Fluoride Ions in Drinking Water," Histochemical Journal 7, no. 4 (1975): 343-55.
  12. J. L. Borke and G. M. Whitford, "Chronic Fluoride Ingestion Decreases 45Ca Uptake by Rat Kidney Membranes," Journal of Nutrition 129 (1999): 1209-13, http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/ful1/129/6/1209.
  13. M. Ando, M. Tadano, S. Yamamoto, et al., "Health Effects of Fluoride Pollution Caused by Coal Burning," Science of the Total Environment 271, no. 1-3 (2001): 107-16.
  14. 0. M. Derryberry, M. D. Bartholomew, and R. B. Fleming, "Fluoride Exposure and Worker Health. The Health Status of Workers in a Fertilizer Manufacturing Plant in Relation to Fluoride Exposure," Archives of Environmental Health 6 (1963): 503-14.
  15. S. P. Kumar and R. A. Harper, "Fluorosis in Aden," British Journal of Radiology 36 (1963): 497-502.
  16. 0. Lantz, M. H. Jouvin, M. C. De Vernejoul, and P. Druet, "Fluoride-Induced Chronic Renal Failure," American Journal of Kidney Diseases 10, no. 2 (1987): 136-39.
  17. M. Reggabi, K. Khelfat, M. T Aoul, et al., "Renal Function in Residents of an Endemic Fluorosis Area in Southern Algeria," Fluoride 17, no. 1 (1984): 35-41, http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/reggabi-1984.pdf.
  18. H. E. Shortt, G. R. McRobert, T. W. Barnard, and A. S. M. Nayar, "Endemic Fluorosis in the Madras Presidency," Indian Journal of Medical Research 25, no. 2 (1937): 553-68.
  19. A. H. Siddiqui, "Fluorosis in Nalgonda District, Hyderabad-Deccan," British Medical Journal 2, no. 4953 (1955): 1408-13.
  20. A. Singh, S. S. Jolly, B. C. Bansal, and C. C. Mathur, "Endemic Fluorosis: Epidemiological, Clinical and Biochemical Study of Chronic Fluoride Intoxication in Punjab (India)," Medicine 42 (1963): 229-46.
  21. V. P. Singla, G. L. Garg, and S. S. Jolly, "The Kidneys," Fluoride 9, no. 1 (1976): 33-35.
  22. S. S. Jolly, 0. P. Sharma, G. Garg, and R. Sharma, "Kidney Changes and Kidney Stones in Endemic Fluorosis," Fluoride 13, no. 1 (1980): 10-16, http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/jolly-1980.pdf.
  23. J. L. Liu, T. Xia, Y. Y. Yu, et al., "The Dose-Effect Relationship of Water Fluoride Levels and Renal Damage in Children" (article in Chinese), Wei Sheng Yan jiu 34, no. 3 (2005): 287-88.
  24. W. Johnson et al., "Fluoridation and Bone Disease in Renal Patients," pages 275-93, in: Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides, ed. E. Johansen, D. R. Taves, and T 0. Olsen, AAAS Selected Symposium (Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1979).
  25. L. I. Juncos and J. V. Donadio, "Renal Failure and Fluorosis," Journal of the American Medical Association 222, no. 7 (1972): 783-85.
  26. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), 280, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=280.
  27. Ibid., 281, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=281.
  28. Ibid., 303, http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571&page=303.
  29. Ibid, chapters 6 and 9.
  30. S. C. Freni, "Exposure to High Fluoride Concentrations in Drinking Water Is Associated with Decreased Birth Rates, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 42, no. 1 (1994): 109-21.
  31. H. Long, Y. Jin, M. Lin, et al., "Fluoride Toxicity in the Male Reproductive System," Fluoride 42, no. 4 (2009): 260-76, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/424/files/FJ2009_v42_n4_p260-276.pdf.
  32. E. Varol, S. Akcay, I. H. Ersoy, et al., "Impact of Chronic Fluorosis on Left Ventricular Diastolic and Global Functions," The Science of the Total Environment 408, no. 11 (2010): 2295-98.
  33. E. Varol, S. Akcay, I. H. Ersoy, et al., "Aortic Elasticity Is Impaired in Patients with Endemic Fluorosis," Biological Trace Element Research 133, no. 2 (2010): 121-27.

Chapter 20: Margin of Safety

  1. National Health and Medical Research Council, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation, reference no. EH41, Australian Government, December 27, 2007, http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/eh4lsyn.htm.
  2. Video of the presentation by Dr. Peter Cooney, Chief Dental Officer of Canada, on the case for fluoridation of drinking water in Dryden, Ontario, Canada, April 1,2008, http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4888471756915953833&hl=en.
  3. Presentations by Barry Cockcroft, Chief Dental Officer for England, at "Question Time on Fluoridation" held on October 20, November 18, and December 3, 2008. Organized by the South Central Strategic Health Authority Southampton, UK.
  4. Bazian Ltd., "Critical Appraisal of 'Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's standards."' A report for South Central Strategic Health Authority, UK, delivery date: February 11, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/sha.basian.nrc.feb09.pdf.
  5. American Dental Association, "Statement on Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards [the NRC2006 report]," news release, March 22, 2006.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Statement on the 2006 National Research Council Report, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards," Division of Oral Health. Posted originally on March 28, 2006. Date last updated: August 24, 2009, http://www.cdc.gov/FLUORIDATION/safety/nrc_report.htm.
  7. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  8. R. J. Carton, "Review of the 2006 National Research Council Report: Fluoride in Drinking Water," Fluoride 39, no. 3 (20(16): 163-72, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/393/files/FJ2006_v39_n3_p163-172.pdf.
  9. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 7 above).
  10. P. P. Bachinskii, 0 A Gutsalenko, N. D. Naryzhniuk, et al., "Action of Fluoride on the Function of the Pituitary-thyroid System of Healthy Persons and Patients with Thyroid Disorders" (article in Russian), Problemy Endokrinologii (Mosk) 31, no. 6 (1985): 25-29, English translation at http://www.fluoridealert.org/bachinskii.1985.pdf.
  11. Q. Xiang, Y. Liang, L Chen, et al., "Effect of Fluoride in Drinking Water on Children's Intelligence," Fluoride 36, no. 2 (2003): 84-94, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/362/files/FJ2003_v36_n2_p84-94.pdf.
  12. Q. Xiang, Y. Liang, M. Zhou, and H. Zang, "Blood Lead of Children in Wamiao-Xinhuai Intelligence Study" (letter), Fluoride 36, no. 3 (2003): 198-99, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/363/files/FJ2003_v36_n3_p198-199.pdf.
  13. F. F. Lin, Aihaiti, H. X. Zhao, et al., "The Relationship of a Low-Iodine and High-Fluoride Environment to Subclinical Cretinism in Xinjiang," Xinjiang Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research; Office of Leading Group for Endemic Disease Control of Hetian Prefectural Committee of the Communist Party of China; and County Health and Epidemic Prevention Station, Yutian, Xinjiang, Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter 7 (1991): 3, http://fluoridealert.org/scher/lin-1991.pdf; also see http://www.fluoridealert.org/IDD.htm.
  14. P. Kurttio, N. Gustaysson, T. Vartiainen, and J. Pekkanen, "Exposure to Natural Fluoride in Well Water and Hip Fracture: A Cohort Analysis in Finland," American Journal of Epidemiology 150, no. 8 (1999): 817-24.
  15. Y. Li, C. Liang, C. W. Slemenda, et al., "Effect of Long-term Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water on Risks of Bone Fractures," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16, no. 5 (2001): 932-39.
  16. B. C. Nesin, "A Water Supply Perspective of the Fluoridation Discussion," Journal of the Maine Water Utilities Association 32 (1956): 33-47.
  17. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, "National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Fluoride. Final Rule," Federal Register, 40 CM Part 104 [WH-FRL-2913-8(b)], November 14, 1985. Note: The MCL established on April 2, 1986 [51 FR 11396), finalizes regulations proposed in the Federal Register of May 14, 1985 (50 FR 20164)]; http://fluoridealert.org/scher/epa-1985.pdf.
  18. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2004: First Human Health Risk Assessment for Sulfuryl Fluoride and Fluoride Anion: "Human Health Risk Assessment for Sulfuryl Fluoride and Fluoride Anion Addressing the Section 3 Registration of Sulfuryl Fluoride Post-Harvest Fumigation of Stored Cereal Grains, Dried Fruits and Tree Nuts and Pest Control in Grain Processing Facilities. PP# 1F6312." This assessment is preceded by a memorandum from Michael Doherty, chemist, and Edwin Budd, toxicologist, Registration Action Branch 2, Health Effects Division (7509C), and Becky Daiss, environmental health scientist, Reregistration Branch 4, Health Effects Division (7509C), Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Washington, DC, January 20, 2004, http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/sfjan.20.2004.epa.docket.pdf.
  19. Comments on reevaluating the fluoride in drinking water standard by Robert J. Carton, PhD, vice president, Local 2050 of the National Federation of Federal Employees, before the Drinking Water Committee of the Science Advisory Board of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Arlington, VA, November 1, 1991.
  20. P. Galletti and G. Joyet, "Effect of Fluorine on Thyroidal Iodine Metabolism in Hyperthyroidism," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology 18, no. 10 (1958): 1102-10. Full study at http://www.slweb.org/galletti.html
  21. P. P. Bachinskii, 0. A. Gutsalenko, N. D. Naryzhniuk, et al., "Action of Fluoride on the Function of the Pituitary-thyroid System of Healthy Persons and Patients with Thyroid Disorders" (n. 11 above).
  22. S. Bang, G. Boivin, J. C. Gerster, and C. A. Baud, "Distribution of Fluoride in Calcified Cartilage of a Fluoride-treated Osteoporotic Patient," Bone 6, no. 4 (1985): 207-10.
  23. B. S. Bhaysar, V. K. Desai, N. R. Mehta, R. T Vashi, K. A. V. R. Krishnamachari, "Neighborhood Fluorosis in Western India Part II: Population Study," Fluoride 18, no 2 (1985): 86-92.
  24. B. W. Carnow and S. A. Conibear, "Industrial Fluorosis," Fluoride 14, no. 4 (1981): 172-81, http://fluoridealert.org/re/carnow.1981.pdf.
  25. M. A. Boillat, J. Garcia and L. Velebit, "Radiological Criteria of Industrial Fluorosis," Skeletal Radiology 5, no. 3 (1980): 161-65.
  26. H. C. Hodge and F. A. Smith, "Occupational Fluoride Exposure," Journal of Occupational Medicine 19, no. 1 (1977): 12-39.
  27. E. Czerwinski and W. Lankosz, "Fluoride-induced Changes in 60 Retired Aluminum Workers," Fluoride 10, no. 3 (1977): 125-36.
  28. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 179 (n. 7 above).
  29. E. R. Schlesinger, D. E. Overton, H. C. Chase, and K. T. Cantwell, "Newburgh-Kingston Caries-Fluorine Study XIII. Pediatric Findings after Ten Years," Journal of the American Dental Association 52, no. 3 (1956): 296-306.
  30. P. P. Bachinskii, 0. A. Gutsalenko, N. D. Naryzhniuk, et al., "Action of Fluoride on the Function of the Pituitary-thyroid System of Healthy Persons and Patients with Thyroid Disorders" (n. 11 above).
  31. K. Baetcke, J. Blondell, W. Burnam, et al., "A Preliminary Evaluation of Articles Related to Fluoride Cited by the Fluoride Action Network (FAN) as Objections to the Sulfuryl Fluoride Pesticide Tolerance Rule," U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, Health Effects Division, November 18, 2003, http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/sf.nov.18.2003.epa.docket.pdf
  32. E. R. Schlesinger, D. E. Overton, H. C. Chase, and K. T. Cantwell, "Newburgh-Kingston Caries-Fluorine Study XIII. Pediatric Findings after Ten Years," Journal of the American Dental Association 52, no. 3 (1956): 296-306.
  33. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, February 1991, http://health.gov/environment/ReviewofFluoride/.
  34. J. Franke, F. Rath, H. Runge, et al., "Industrial Fluorosis," Fluoride 8, no. 2 (1975): 61-83, http://www.fluoridealert.org/re/franke-1975.pdf.
  35. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 179 (n. 7 above).
  36. C. G. Pandit, T. N. S. Raghavachari, D. S. Rao, and V. Krishnamurti, "Endemic Fluorosis in South India," Indian Journal of Medical Research 28, no. 2 (1940): 533-58.
  37. K. Roholm, Fluorine Intoxication: 4 Clinical-Hygienic Study, with a Review of the Literature and Some Experimental Investigations (Copenhagen: Nyt Nordisk Forlag; London: H. K. Lewis and Co. Ltd., 1937), http://www.scribd.com/doc/11757791/Fluorine-Intoxication-Kaj-Roholm-1937-Copenhagen.
  38. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2004: First Human Health Risk Assessment for Sulfuryl Fluoride and Fluoride Anion (n. 19 above).
  39. Presentation by Joyce Donahue, PhD, toxicologist, Office of Science and Technology, U.S. EPA Office of Drinking Water, to the National Research Council Committee: Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water [BEST-K-02-05-A], August 12,2003, http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/nrc.aug.2003.epa.html.
  40. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 7 above).
  41. Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, Food and Nutrition Board (Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, February 2004), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10925.
  42. Ibid., appendix E.
  43. M. C. Kiritsy, S. M. Levy, J. J. Warren, et al., "Assessing Fluoride Concentrations of Juices and Juice-Flavored Drinks," Journal of the American Dental Association 127, no. 7 (1996): 895-902.
  44. J. R. Heilman, M. C. Kiritsy, S. M. Levy, and J. S. Wefel, "Assessing Fluoride Levels of Carbonated Soft Drinks," Journal of the American Dental Association 130, no. 11 (1999): 1593-99.
  45. J. G. Stannard, Y. S. Shim, M. Kritsineli, et al., "Fluoride Levels and Fluoride Contamination of Fruit Juices," Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry 16, no. 1 (1991): 38-40.
  46. U.S. Department of Agriculture, "USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods," prepared by Nutrient Data Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA; in collaboration with University of Minnesota, Nutrition Coordinating Center; University of Iowa, College of Dentistry; Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Food Analysis Laboratory Control Center; National Agricultural Statistics Service, CSREES, USDA; and Food Composition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, 2004, http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/fluorideloodlevels.2004.pdf.
  47. E. M. Bentley, R. P. Ellwood, and R. M. Davies, "Fluoride Ingestion from Toothpaste by Young Children," British Dental Journal 186, no. 9 (1999): 460-62.
  48. S. M. Levy and N. Guha-Chowdhury, "Total Fluoride Intake and Implications for Dietary Fluoride Supplementation," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 59, no. 4 (1999): 211-23.
  49. N. J. Fein and F. L. Cerklewski, "Fluoride Content of Foods Made with Mechanically Separated Chicken," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, no. 9 (2001): 4284-86.
  50. P. Pehrsson, R. Cutrufelli, K. Patterson, et al., "The Fluoride Content of Brewed and Microwave Brewed Black Teas," U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, 2005, http://fluoridealem.org/re/pehrsson-2005.usda.pdf.
  51. M. P. Whyte, "Fluoride Levels in Bottled Teas," The American Journal of Medicine 119, no. 2 (2006): 189-90.
  52. M. P. Whyte, W. G. Totty, V. T Lim, and G. M. Whitford, "Skeletal Fluorosis from Instant Tea," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 23, no. 5 (2008): 759-69:
  53. J. E. Hallanger Johnson, A. E. Kearns, P. M. Doran, et al., "Fluoride-Related Bone Disease Associated with Habitual Tea Consumption," Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82, no. 6 (2007): 719-24. Note: Erratum on dosage error in article text in: Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82, no. 8 (2007): 1017, http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/82/6/719.full.
  54. U.S. Department of Agriculture, "USDA National Fluoride Database of Selected Beverages and Foods" (n. 39 above).
  55. A. W. Burgstahler and M. A. Robinson, "Fluoride in California Wines and Raisins," Fluoride 30, no. 3 (1997): 142-46, http://fluoridealert.org/re/burgstahler-1997.pdf.
  56. G. S. Ostrom, "Cryolite on Grapes/Fluoride in Wines—A Guide for Growers and Vintners to Determine Optimum Cryolite Applications on Grapevines," CATI Viticulture and Enology Research Center, California State University, Fresno, published by the California Agricultural Technology Institute, CATI Publication #960601, June, 1996.
  57. Amicus curiae brief of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Headquarters Union (Local 2050, National Federation of Federal Employees), in: Natural Resources Defense Council v. Environmental Protection Agency and Lee M Thomas, Administrator. In the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, 1986, http://www.fluoridealert.org/health/epa/nrdc/union-brief1986.pdf; see also http://www.fluoridealertorg/health/epa/nrdc/index.html.
  58. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 7 above).
  59. Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (Washington, DC: Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes, Food and Nutrition Board, 1997), http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=5776.
  60. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries," Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review 48, no. 41 (October 22, 1999): 933-40, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841al.htm. Note: The authors of this report were Scott Tomar and Susan Griffin, as cited in Tomar's curriculum vitae, paper number 27 on page 27, http://fluoridealert.org/re/tomar.scott.cv.ref.27.pdf.
  61. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Recommendations for Using Fluoride to Prevent and Control Dental Caries in the United States," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 50, no. RR14 (August 17, 2001): 1-42, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr5014al.htm.
  62. Letter coauthored by Bruce Alberts, president of the National Academy of Sciences, and Kenneth Shine, president of the Institute of Medicine, to Albert W. Burgstahler and others, November 20, 1998, http://www.fluoridation.com/fraud.htm.
  63. Institute of Medicine, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride, 309 (n. 52 above).
  64. Forum on Fluoridation (Dublin, Ireland: Stationery Office, 2002), page 110, http://fluoridealert.org/re/fluoridation.forum.2002.pdf.
  65. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2004: First Human Health Risk Assessment for Sulfuryl Fluoride and Fluoride Anion (n. 19 above).
  66. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005: Second Human Health Risk Assessment for Sulfisryl Fluoride and Fluoride Anion: "Draft. Human Health Risk Assessment for Sulfuryl Fluoride and Fluoride Anion Addressing the Section 3 Registration of Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation of Food Processing Facilities. PP# 3F6573," Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, June 2, 2005, http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesti,cides/ sara-june2.2005.pdf.
  67. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006: Third Human Health Risk Assessment for Sulfuryl Fluoride and Fluoride Anion: "Final. Human Health Risk Assessment for Sulfuryl Fluoride and Fluoride Anion Addressing the Section 3 Registration of Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation of Food Processing Facilities. PP# 3F6573," Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, January 18, 2006, http://www.fluoridealert.org/ pesticides/sf.hra-jan18.2006.pdf.
  68. Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project, "Fluoride Residue Tolerances Approved for Food by US EPA as of July 15, 2005," http.//www.fiuoridealert.org/pesticides/fluoride.tols.july.2005.html.

Chapter 21: The Precautionary Principle

  1. J. Tickner and M. Coffin, "What Does the Precautionary Principle Mean for Evidence-Based Dentistry?" Journal of Evidence Based Dental Practice 6, no. 1 (2006): 6-15.
  2. C. Raffensperger and J. Tickner, Protecting Public Health and the Environment: Implementing the Precautionary Principle (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999).
  3. R. Bailey, "Precautionary Tale: The Latest Environmentalist Concept—The Precautionary Principle—seeks to Stop Innovation Before It Happens. Very Bad Idea," Reason Magazine, April 1999, http://reason.com/archives/1999/04/01/precautionary-tale.
  4. R. Bailey, 'Are Chemicals Killing Us? Hit & Run," Reason Magazine, May 21, 2009, http://reason.com/blog/2009/05/21/are-chemicals-killing-us.
  5. J. D. Graham, "The Perils of the Precautionary Principle: Lessons from the American and European Experience," The Heritage Foundation, Policy and Research Analysis, January 15, 2004, http://www.heritage.org/Research/Regislation/h1818.cfm.
  6. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  7. J. Tickner and M. Coffin, "What Does the Precautionary Principle Mean for Evidence-Based Dentistry?" (n. 1 above).

Chapter 22: Weak and Inadequate Science

  1. National Health and Medical Research Council, The Effectiveness of Water Fluoridation (Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service, 1991), 142.
  2. P. Mansfield, "The Distribution of Urinary Fluoride Concentration in the UK," Fluoride 32, no. 1 (1999): 27-32.
  3. Open Letter by Professor Trevor Sheldon, DSc, FMedSci, of the University of York, Department of Health Sciences, Heslington, York, UK, January 3, 2001, http://www.appgaf.org.uk/archive/archive_letter_shel/.
  4. D. Fagin, "Second Thoughts on Fluoride," Scientific American 298, no. 1 (January 2008): 74-81. Excerpts at http://www.fluoridealert.org/sc.am.jan.2008.html.
  5. J. A. Varner, K. F. Jensen, W. Horvath, and R. L. Isaacson, "Chronic Administration of Aluminum-Fluoride and Sodium-Fluoride to Rats in Drinking Water: Alterations in Neuronal and Cerebrovascular Integrity," Brain Research 784, no. 1-2 (1998): 284-98. Extended excerpts at http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-2/31291-95.htm.
  6. E. R. Schlesinger, D. E. Overton, H. C. Chase, and K. T Cantwell, "Newburgh-Kingston Caries-Fluorine Study XIII. Pediatric Findings After Ten Years," Journal of the American Dental Association 52, no. 3 (1956): 296-306.
  7. M. T. Alarcon-Herrera, I. R, Martin-Dominguez, R. Trejo-Vazquez, et al., "Well Water Fluoride, Dental Fluorosis, Bone Fractures in the Guadiana Valley of Mexico," Fluoride 34, no. 2 (2001): 139-49, http://www.fluoride-journal.com/01-34-2/342-139.pdf.
  8. J. Luke, "Fluoride Deposition in the Aged Human Pineal Gland," Caries Research 35, no. 2 (2001): 125-28.
  9. J. Luke, "The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland," PhD thesis, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK, 1997. Thesis online, with permission of author, at http://fluoridealert.org/luke-1997.pdf.
  10. M. T Alarcon-Herrera et al., "Well Water Fluoride, Dental Fluorosis, Bone Fractures in the Guadiana Valley of Mexico" (n. 7 above).
  11. L. Morgan, E. Allred, M. Tavares, D. Bellinger, and H. Needleman, "Investigation of the Possible Associations between Fluorosis, Fluoride Exposure, and Childhood Behavior Problems," Pediatric Dentistry 20; no. 4 (1998): 244-52.
  12. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  13. M. S. McDonagh, P. F. Whiting, P. M. Wilson, et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (2000): 855-59, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/855. Note: The full report that this paper summarizes is commonly known as the York Review and is accessible at http://fluoridealert.org/re/york.review.2000.pdf.
  14. Medical Research Council, Water Fluoridation and Health, Working Group Report, UK, September 2002, http://fluoridealert.org/re/mrc-2002.pdf.
  15. F. F. Lin, Aihaiti, H. X. Zhao, et al., "The Relationship of a Low-Iodine and High-Fluoride Environment to Subclinical Cretinism in Xinjiang," Xinjiang Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research; Office of Leading Group for Endemic Disease Control of Hetian Prefectural Committee of the Communist Party of China; and County Health and Epidemic Prevention Station, Yutian, Xinjiang, Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter 7 (1991): 3, http://fluoridealert.org/scher/lin-1991.pdf, also see http://www.fluoridealert.org/IDD.htm.
  16. X. S. Li , J. L. Zhi, and R. 0. Gao, "Effect of Fluoride Exposure on Intelligence in Children," Fluoride 28, no. 4 (1995): 189-92, http://fluoridealert.org/scher/li-1995.pdf.
  17. L. B. Zhao, G. H. Liang, D. N. Zhang, and X. R. Wu, "Effect of High-Fluoride Water Supply on Children's Intelligence," Fluoride 29, no. 4 (1996): 190-92, http://fluoridealert.org/scher/zhao-1996.pdf.
  18. Y. Lu, Z. R. Sun, L. N. Wu, et al., "Effect of High-Fluoride Water on Intelligence in Children," Fluoride 33, no. 2 (2000): 74-78, http://fluoridealert.org/re/lu-2000.pdf.
  19. J. Luke, "Fluoride Deposition in the Aged Human Pineal Gland" (n. 8 above).
  20. J. Luke, "The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland" (n. 9 above).
  21. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 12 above).
  22. Bazian Ltd., "Critical Appraisal of 'Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's standards.'" A report for South Central Strategic Health Authority, UK, delivery date: February 11, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/sha.basian.nrc.feb09.pdf.
  23. Bazian Ltd., "Independent Critical Appraisal of Selected Studies Reporting an Association between Fluoride in Drinking Water and IQ." A report for South Central Strategic Health Authority, UK, delivery date: February 11, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/iq.bazian.feb09.pdf.
  24. National Health and Medical Research Council, The Effectiveness of Water Fluoridation (n. 1 above).
  25. J. Luke, "Fluoride Deposition in the Aged Human Pineal Gland" (n. 8 above).
  26. J. Luke, "The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland" (n. 9 above).
  27. Y. Li, C. Liang, C. W. Slemenda, et al., "Effect of Long-term Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water on Risks of Bone Fractures," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16, no. 5 (2001): 932-39.
  28. E. B. Bassin, D. Wypij, R. B. Davis, and M. A. Mittleman, "Age-specific Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water and Osteosarcoma (United States)," Cancer Causes and Control 17, no. 4 (May 2006): 421-28.
  29. G. L. Waldbott, A. W. Burgstahler, and H. L. McKinney, Fluoridation: The Great Dilemma (Lawrence, Kansas: Coronado Press, 1978).
  30. W. Wagner and R. Steinzer (eds.), Rescuing Science from Politics: Regulation and the Distortion of Scientific Research (UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006).
  31. American Dental Association, "Fluoridation Facts," an update commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of community water fluoridation, 2005, https.//www.ada.org/sections/professionalResources/pdfs/fluoridation_facts.pdf.
  32. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, February 1991, http://health.gov/environment/ReviewofFluoride/.
  33. S. C. Freni, "Exposure to High Fluoride Concentrations in Drinking Water Is Associated with Decreased Birth Rates," Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 42, no. 1 (1994): 109-21.
  34. American Dental Association, Fluoridation Facts (n. 31 above). Reference 271 refers to Freni's paper (n. 33 above).
  35. P. Connett, personal communication with Stan Freni, 2004.
  36. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 12 above).
  37. American Dental Association, "Statement on Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards [the NRC 2006 report]," news release, March 22, 2006.
  38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Statement on the 2006 National Research Council Report, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards," Division of Oral Health. Posted originally on March 28, 2006. Date last updated: August 24, 2009, http://www.cdc.gov/FLUORIDATION/safety/nrc_report.htm.
  39. J. W. Knutson, "The Case for Water Fluoridation," New England Journal of Medicine 246, no. 19 (1952): 737-43.
  40. H. C. Hodge, "Safety Factors in Water Fluoridation Based on the Toxicology of Fluorides," The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 22 (1963): 111-17, http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=784060&jid=PNS&volumeld=22&issueId=01&aid=784052.
  41. Video of the presentation by Dr. Peter Cooney, Chief Dental Officer of Canada, on the case for fluoridation of drinking water in Dryden, Ontario, Canada, April 1, 2008, http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=4888471756915953833&h1=en.

Chapter 23: Promoters' Strategies and Tactics

  1. P. Connett, "50 Reasons to Oppose Fluoridation" (updated April 12, 2004). Reprinted in Medical Veritas 1:70-80, http://www.fluoridealert.org/50reasons.htm.
  2. American Dental Association, "Fluoridation Facts," an update commemorating the sixtieth anniversary of community water fluoridation, 2005, https://www.ada.org/sections/professionalResources/pdfs/fluoridation_facts.pdf.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Ten Great Public Health Achievements: United States, 1900-1999," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48, no. 12 (April 2, 1999): 241-43, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056796.htm.
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries," Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review 48, no. 41 (October 22, 1999): 933-40, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1.htm. Note: The authors of this report were Scott Tomar and Susan Griffin, as cited in Tomar's curriculum vitae, paper number 27 on page 27, http://fluoridealert.org/re/tomanscott.cv.ref.27.pdf.
  5. P. Connett and M. Connett, "The Emperor Has No Clothes: A Critique of the CDC's Promotion of Fluoridation," Waste Not, no. 468, September 2000 (revised October 3). Published by Work on Waste, USA, 82 Judson Street, Canton, NY 13617, http://www.fluoridealert.org/cdc.htm.
  6. National Research Council, Health Effects of Ingested Fluoride (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993), http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=030904975X.
  7. American Dental Association, "White Paper on Fluoridation," Council on Dental Health and Health Planning, 1979, http://fluoridealert.org/ada.white.paper.1979.html.
  8. S. Barrett, "Fluoridation: Poison-mongers Delaying Health for Millions?" Journal of the American Dental Association 93, no. 5 (1976): 880, as cited in Scientific Knowledge in Controversy: The Social Dynamics of the Fluoridation Debate, by Brian Martin (State University of New York, 1991).
  9. M. W. Easley, "Community Fluoridation in America: The Unprincipled Opposition," 1999, posted on Dental Watch as of March 21, 2010, http://www.dentalwatch.org/fl/opposition.pdf.
  10. P. Connett and E. Connett, "The Fluoridation of Drinking Water: A House of Cards Waiting to Fall. Part 1: The Science," Waste Not, no. 373, November 1996. Published by Work on Waste USA, 82 Judson Street, Canton, NY 13617.
  11. E-mail from Colleen Wulf of the Ohio Department of Health, Bureau of Oral Health Services, to Councilor Elahu Goselin, Athens, Ohio, October 9, 2009.
  12. Department of Human Services, "Water Fluoridation: Questions and Answers," pamphlet distributed by the Department of Human Services, Melbourne, Australia, February, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/re/australia.2009.victoria.pamphlet.pdf.
  13. A. W. Burgstahler et al., "Citizens Are Being Misled. Opinion," Sunraysia Daily (Australia), September 18, 2009.
  14. American Dental Association, "White Paper on Fluoridation," pages 10-11, Council on Dental Health and Health Planning, 1979, http://fluoridealert.org/ada.white.paper.1979 .html.
  15. Video statement of Dr. Poul Erik Petersen, Chief, Oral Health Director for the World Health Organization's Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion, to the attendees of a meeting celebrating the sixtieth anniversary of flouridation, hosted by the American Dental Association and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control in Chicago, Illinois, July 2005, http://terrance.who.int/mediacentre/videos/Dr_Petersen.mpg.
  16. M. Diesendorf, "The Mystery of Declining Tooth Decay," Nature 322, no. 6075. (1986): 125-29.
  17. B. Hileman, "Fluoridation of Water. Questions About Health Risks and Benefits Remain after More Than 40 years," Chemical & Engineering News, August 1, 1988.
  18. D. Fagin, "Second Thoughts on Fluoride," Scientific American 298, no. 1 (January 2008): 74-81; excerpts at http://www.fluoridealert.org/sc.am.jan.2008.html.
  19. The journal Fluoride is published by the International Society for Fluoride Research. Back issues available at http://www.fluorideresearch.org/backissues.pdf.
  20. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluorine (Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, September 2003), http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tpll.pdf.
  21. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  22. TOXNET is an online search site hosted by the U.S. Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, http'://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/.
  23. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 23 above).
  24. Back copies of Dentistry Today can be viewed at http://www.dentistrytoday.com/ME2/Default.asp.
  25. J. Monahan, "Dental Health Remains Prime Goal," The Telegram & Gazette (Worcester, Massachusetts), November 7, 2001.
  26. M. Roosevelt, "Not in My Water Supply," Time Magazine, October 17, 2005, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1118379-3,00.html.
  27. P. Forgey, "Pro-Fluoride Campaign Nets $151,623," Juneau Empire (Alaska), September 30, 2007, http://juneauempire.com/stories/093007/loc_20070930051.shtml.
  28. W. Blackwell, "LDA Urges Louisiana to 'Tap into a Healthier Smile!'" Louisiana Dental Association (LDA), undated (2007-2008). Note: Ward Blackwell is executive director of the LDA, http://www.ladental.org/cms/content/view/113/35/.
  29. See news items on fluoridation from Australia at Fluoride Action Network, http://www2.fluoridealert.org/Alert/Australia.
  30. W. Varney, Fluoride in Australia: A Case to Answer (Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 1986).
  31. W. Varney, "Troubled Waters, Little Transparency: Fluoridation in Australia," April 2010, http://fluoridealert.org/varney.html.
  32. J. Meikle, "Fluoridation Scheme Could Go England-Wide," The Guardian (London), February 27, 2009, http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2009/feb/27/fluoridation-southampton-health.
  33. J. Reeve, "Daily Echo Backs Calls for a Referendum on Fluoride Issue," Daily Echo (UK), June 27, 2009, http://www.dailyecho.co.uk/news/4462636.Daily_Echo_backs_calls_for_a_referendum_on_fluoride_issue/.
  34. Bazian Ltd., "Critical Appraisal of 'Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards." A report for South Central Strategic Health Authority, UK, delivery date: February 11, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/sha.basian.nrc.feb09.pdf.
  35. Bazian Ltd., "Independent Critical Appraisal of Selected Studies Reporting an Association between Fluoride in Drinking Water and IQ," A report for South Central Strategic Health Authority, UK, delivery date: February 11, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/iq.bazian.feb09.pdf.
  36. J. Reeve, "Southampton Civic Bosses Call for Fluoride Referendum," Daily Echo (UK), March 17, 2010, http://www.dailyecho.co.uk/news/5067065.Call_for_fluoride_referendum/.
  37. See news items on the fluoridation issue from England at Fluoride Action Network, http://www2.fluoridealert.org/Alert/United-Kingdom/England.
  38. R. Nadler-Olenick, "One for the Hall of Shame; Del Rio, Texas. Pt 1. Fluoride Follies," 2006, http://blog.fluoridefreeaustin.com/2009/03/22/del-rio-texas-pt-i—one-for-the-hall-of-shame.aspx.

Chapter 24: Self-Serving Governmental Reviews

  1. R. A. Freeze and J. A. Lehr, The Fluoride Wars: How a Modest Public Health Measure Became America's Longest-Running Political Melodrama (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2009).
  2. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Review of Fluoride: Benefits and Risks, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, February 1991, http://health.gov/environment/ReviewofFluoride/.
  3. Forum on Fluoridation (Dublin, Ireland: Stationery Office, 2002), http://fluoridealert.org/re/fluoridation.forum.2002.pdf.
  4. National Health and Medical Research Council, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation, reference no. EH41, Australian Government, December 27, 2007, http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications/synopses/eh4lsyn.htm.
  5. Health Canada, "Findings and Recommendations of the Fluoride Expert Panel (January 2007)," April 2008, http://fluoridealert.org/re/canada.fluoride.expert.pane1.2007.pdf.
  6. Health Canada, Fluoride in Drinking Water. Document for public comment. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document. Prepared by the Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee on Drinking Water, September 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/canada.2009.report.pdf.
  7. Forum on Fluoridation (n. 3 above).
  8. P. Connett, "50 Reasons to Oppose Fluoridation" (updated April 12, 2004). Reprinted in Medical Veritas 1:70-80, http://www.fluoridealert.org/50reasons.htm.
  9. Y. Li, C. Liang, C. W. Slemenda, et al., "Effect of Long-Term Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water on Risks of Bone Fractures," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16, no. 5 (2001): 932-39.
  10. A. Burgstahler, R. J. Carton, P. Connett, et al., "A Scientific Critique of the Fluoridation Forum Report, Ireland," 2002, http://www.fluoridealert.org/irish.forum-critique.htm.
  11. Anonymous, "A critical appraisal of, and commentary on, 50 Reasons to Oppose Fluoridation,'" posted May 5, 2005, on Ireland's Department of Health Web site, http://www.dohcle/other_health_issues/dental_research/critical_fifty.pdf?direct=1.
  12. Letter from Paul Connett to John Moloney, TD, chairman, Oireachtas Joint Committee on Health & Children, Dublin, Ireland, in response to the critique of his "50 Reasons to Oppose Fluoridation" posted on Ireland's Department of Health's Web site, January 20, 2006, http://www.fluoridealert.org/50reasons.ireland.pdf.
  13. National Health and Medical Research Council, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation (n. 4 above).
  14. M. McDonagh, P. Whiting, M. Bradley, et al., "A Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, The University of York, Report 18 (this report is commonly known, as the York Review), http://fluoridealert.org/re/york.review.2000.pdf.
  15. Open letter by Professor Trevor Sheldon, DSc, FMedSci, of the University of York, Department of Health Sciences, Heslington, York, UK, January 3, 2001, http://www.appgaf.org.uk/archive/archive_lettershel/.
  16. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  17. National Health and Medical Research Council, A Systematic Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Fluoridation, 15 (n. 4 above).
  18. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 16 above).
  19. C. W. Douglass and K. Joshipura, "Caution Needed in Fluoride and Osteosarcoma Study" (letter), Cancer Causes & Control 17, no. 4 (May 2006): 481-82.
  20. B. Bassin, D. Wypij, R. B. Davis, and M. A. Mittleman, "Age-Specific Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water and Osteosarcoma (United States)," Cancer Causes and Control 17, no. 4 (May 2006): 421-28.
  21. Letter from Anna Bligh, MP, Premier of Queensland (Australia), to constituent J Lewis, May 15, 2009, http://fluoridealert.org/au.bligh.may15.2009.1etter.html.
  22. Health Canada, "Findings and Recommendations of the Fluoride Expert Panel (January 2007)" (n. 5 above).
  23. Health Canada, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 6 above).
  24. M. Levy and F. Corbeil, Water Fluoridation: An Analysis of the Health Benefits and Risks, Scientific Advisory Development des Individues et des Communautes, Institut National de Sauté Publique, Quebec, Canada, June 2007, http://fluoridealert.org/re/levy-2007.canada.pdf.
  25. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 16 above).
  26. Health Canada, "Findings and Recommendations of the Fluoride Expert Panel (January 2007)" (n. 5 above).
  27. C. W. Douglass and K. Joshipura, "Caution Needed in Fluoride and Osteosarcoma Study" (n. 19 above).
  28. Health Canada, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 6 above).
  29. World Health Organization, Fluorides, Environmental Health Criteria 227, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002, http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc227.htm.
  30. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Toxicological Profile for Fluorides, Hydrogen Fluoride and Fluorine (Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, September 2003), http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp11.pdf.
  31. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water (n. 16 above).
  32. "Dental Experts Defend Fluoride in Water; Activists Claim Link to Brain Damage," Canadian Press, August 8, 2008.
  33. "Experts Disagree on Fluoride in Drinking Water," CTV-News (Canadian Television), August 7, 2008, http://www2.fluoridealert.org/Alert/Canada/Ontario/Experts-disagree-on-fluoride-in-drinking-water.

Chapter 25: A Response to Pro-Fluoridation Claims

  1. National Research Council of the National Academies, Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2006), 33, 36, 40, http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11571.
  2. G. M. Whitford, "Fluoride in Dental Products: Safety Considerations," Journal of Dental Research 66, no. 5 (1987): 1056-60.
  3. Q. Xiang, Y. Liang, L. Chen, et al., "Effect of Fluoride in Drinking Water on Children's Intelligence," Fluoride 36, no. 2 (2003): 84-94, http://www.fluorideresearch.org/362/files/FJ2003_v36_n2_p84-94.pdf.
  4. Y. Li, C. Liang, C. W. Slemenda, et al., "Effect of Long-Term Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water on Risks of Bone Fractures," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16, no.5 (2001): 932-39.
  5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Ten Great Public Health Achievements: United States, 1900-1999," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48, no. 12 (April 2, 1999): 241-43, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtm1/00056796.htm.
  6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries," Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review 48, no. 41 (October 22, 1999): 933-40, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841al.htm. Note: The authors of this report were Scott Tomar and Susan Griffin, as cited in Tomar's curriculum vitae, paper number 27 on page 27, http://fluoridealert.org/re/tomar.scott.cv.ref.27.pdf.
  7. S. 0. Griffin, K. Jones, and S. L. Tomar, "An Economic Evaluation of Community Water Fluoridation," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 61, no. 2 (2001): 78-86.
  8. M. S. McDonagh, P. F. Whiting, P. M. Wilson, et al., "Systematic Review of Water Fluoridation," British Medical Journal 321, no. 7265 (2000): 855-59, http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7265/855. Note: The full report that this paper summarizes is commonly known as the York Review and is accessible at http://fluoridealert.org/re/york.review.2000.pdf.
  9. Fluoride Action Network, "Professionals' Statement Calling for an End to Fluoridation," http://fluoridealert.org/professionals.statement.html.
  10. P. P. Bachinskii, 0. A. Gutsalenko, N. D. Naryzhniuk et al., "Action of Fluoride on the Function of the Pituitary-thyroid System of Healthy Persons and Patients with Thyroid Disorders" (article in Russian), Problemy Endokrinologii (Mosk) 31, no. 6 (1985): 25-29. English translation at http://www.fluoridealert.org/bachinskii.1985.pdf.
  11. F. F. Lin, Aihaiti, H. X. Zhao, et al., "The Relationship of a Low-Iodine and High Fluoride Environment to Subclinical Cretinism in Xinjiang," Xinjiang Institute for Endemic Disease Control and Research; Office of Leading Group for Endemic Disease Control of Hetian Prefectural Committee of the Communist Party of China; and County Health and Epidemic Prevention Station, Yutian, Xinjiang, Iodine Deficiency Disorder Newsletter 7 (1991): 3, http://fluoridealert.org/scher/lin-1991.pdf; also see http://www.fluoridealert.org/IDD.htm.
  12. Y. Li et al., "Effect of Long-Term Exposure to Fluoride in Drinking Water on Risks of Bone Fractures" (n. 4 above).
  13. E. B. Bassin, D. Wypij, R. B. Davis, and M. A. Mittleman, "Age-specfic Fluoride Exposure in Drinking Water and Osteosarcoma (United States)," Cancer Causes and Control 17, no. 4 (May 2006): 421-28.
  14. C. W. Douglass and K. Joshipura, "Caution Needed in Fluoride and Osteosarcoma Study" (letter), Cancer Causes & Control 17, no. 4 (May 2006): 481-82.
  15. F. T Shannon, D. M. Fergusson, and L. J. Horwood, "Exposure to Fluoridated Water Supplies and Child Behaviour," New Zealand Medical Journal 99, no. 803 (1986): 416-18.
  16. K. E. Heller, S. A. Eklund, and B. A. Burt, "Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis at Varying Water Fluoride Concentrations," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 57, no. 3 (1997): 136-43.
  17. E. Dincer, "Why Do I Have White Spots on My Front Teeth," New York State Dental Journal 74, no. 1 (2008): 58-60, http://www.nysdental.org/img/current-pdf/JmlJan2008.pdf.
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Fluoridation Census 1992," page iv, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Public Health Service, National Center for Prevention Services, Division of Oral Health, Atlanta, Georgia, 1993, http://fluoridealertorg/cdc.fcensus.1992.html.
  19. K. E. Heller, S. A. Eklund, and B. A. Burt, "Dental Caries and Dental Fluorosis at Varying Water Fluoride Concentrations," Journal of Public Health Dentistry 57, no. 3 (1997): 136-43 (n. 16 above).
  20. National Research Council, Fluoride in Drinking Water, 177 (n. 1 above).
  21. S. Barrett, "Fluoridation: Poison-mongers Delaying Health for Millions?" Journal of the American Dental Association 93, no. 55 (1976): 880, as cited by Brian Martin in Scientific Knowledge in Controversy: The Social Dynamics of the Fluoridation Debate (State University of New York Press, 1991).
  22. B. Sprague, M. Bernhardt, and S. Barrett, "Fluoridation: Don't Let the Poisonmongers Scare You" (undated), online at QuackWatch, http://www.quackwatch.com/03HealthPromotion/fluoride.html.
  23. M. Crichton, "'Aliens Cause Global Warming'. From a lecture delivered by the late Michael Crichton at the California Institute of Technology on Jan. 17, 2003," Wall Street Journal, November 7, 2008, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122603134258207975.html.

Chapter 26: The Promoters' Motivations

  1. B. Martin, Scientific Knowledge in Controversy: The Social Dynamics of the Fluoridation Debate (State University of New York Press, 1991).
  2. E. Groth, "The Fluoridation Controversy; Which Side is Science On?" A commentary in Scientific Knowledge in Controversy: The Social Dynamics of the Fluoridation Debate by Brian Martin (State University of New York Press, 1991), 169-92.
  3. Ibid., 174-75.
  4. B. Osmunson, personal communication with Paul Connett, 2008.
  5. J. Colquhoun, "Education and Fluoridation in New Zealand: An Historical Study," PhD diss., University of Auckland, New Zealand, 1987.
  6. J. Colquhoun, "Why I Changed My Mind about Fluoridation," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 41 (1997): 29-44. Reprinted in Fluoride 31, no. 2 (1998): 103-18, http://www.fluoride-journal.com/98-31-2/312103.htm.
  7. T S. Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (The University of Chicago Press, 1962).
  8. B. C. Nesin, "A Water Supply Perspective of the Fluoridation Discussion," Journal of the Maine Water Utilities Association 32 (1956): 33-47.
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Achievements in Public Health, 1900-1999: Fluoridation of Drinking Water to Prevent Dental Caries," Mortality and Morbidity Weekly Review 48, no. 41 (October 22, 1999): 933-40, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm4841a1ltm.
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Ten Great Public Health Achievements: United States, 1900-1999," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48, no. 12 (April 2, 1999): 241-43, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtm1/00056796.htm.
  11. "Rethinking Fluoridation: EPA Headquarters Union Calls for Moratorium," a video interview with Bill Hirzy, Ph.D., a risk assessment scientist for the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Produced by Michael Connett for Grass Roots & Global Video, a project of the American Environmental Health Studies Project in association with Fluoride Action Network, May 2001.
  12. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception (New York: Seven Stories Press, 2004).
  13. M. Connett and P. Connett, "The Fluoride Deception: An Interview with Christopher Bryson" (video, 28:30 min.), 2004, http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=3949434744498031545&h1=ent
  14. SourceWatch, "American Council on Science and Health," The Center for Media and Demoracy, http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=American_Council_on_Science_and_Health.
  15. Ibid.
  16. B. Moyers, "PR Strategies. Trade Secrets: A Moyers Report," PBS TV (Public Broadcasting Service), produced by Public Affairs Television, Inc., 2001, http://www.pbs.org/tradesecrets/evidence/secrecy_pop03.html, and http://www.pbs.org/tradesecrets/transcript.html.
  17. "ACSH Considers Legal Action Against Attempts to Reclassify Fluoride," Food Chemical News, April 30, 1990.
  18. E B. Exner and G. L. Waldbott, The American Fluoridation Experiment (New York: Devin-Adair, 1957).
  19. G. Caldwell and P. E. Zanfagna, Fluoridation and Truth Decay (Massachusetts: Top-Ecol Press, 1974).
  20. W. Varney, Fluoride in Australia: A Case to Answer (Sydney: Hale and Iremonger, 1986).
  21. F. B. Exner and G. L. Waldbott, The American Fluoridation Experiment, 8 (n. 18 above).
  22. W. Varney, Fluoride in Australia, 69 (n. 20 above).
  23. T Cambanis, "Dr. Frederick J. Stare, 91, Pioneer in Nutrition Studies," Boston Globe (Massachusetts), April 6, 2002, page B7.
  24. G. Caldwell and P. E. Zanfagna, Fluoridation and Truth Decay, 11 (n. 19 above).
  25. W. Varney, Fluoride in Australia, 70 (n. 20 above).
  26. G. Caldwell and P. E. Zanfagna, Fluoridation and Truth Decay, 10 (n. 19 above).
  27. Ibid., 244.
  28. D. S. Bernstein, D. M. Hegsted, C. D. Guri, and F. J. Stare, "Prevalence of Osteoporosis in High- and Low-fluoride Areas in North Dakota," Journal of the American Medical Association 198, no. 5 (1966): 85-90.
  29. H. E. Meema, "Fluorides and Osteoporosis" (letter), The Lancet, February 25, 1967.
  30. E. Hedderberg, "Fluoride Is Called Helpful to the Elderly," St. Petersburg Times (Florida), September 9, 1969.
  31. C. Bryson, The Fluoride Deception (n. 12 above).
  32. Ibid., 209.
  33. J. Barzun, Science: The Glorious Entertainment (New York, Evanston, and London: Harper & Row, 1964), 71-72.

Review and Conclusion

  1. J. A. Brunelle and J. P. Carlos, "Recent Trends in Dental Caries in U.S. Children and the Effect of Water Fluoridation," Journal of Dental Research 69 (1990): 723-27.
  2. D. Fagin, "Second Thoughts on Fluoride," Scientific American 298, no. 1 (January 2008): 74-81. Excerpts at http://www.fluoridealert.org/sc.am.jan.2008.html.
  3. "The Professionals' Statement Calling for an End to Water Fluoridation," Fluoride Action Network, http://fluoridealert.org/prof-statement.pdf.
  4. M. Tavares and V. Chomita, "A Healthy Weight Intervention for Children in a Dental Setting," Journal of the American Dental Association 140, no. 3 (2009): 313-16.