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The Poison in Your Teeth

By Tom McGuire, DDS


American Dental Association

  • ADA acknowledges mercury is released from amalgam fillings:
  • ADA Letter: John W. Stanford, PhD. Secretary CDMIE. May 22, 1986.
  • Amalgam OK during pregnancy, ADA News 36:18, 2005.
  • American Dental Association’s Special Report: The ADA and CDA Principals of Ethics and Code of Prefessional Conduct ADA Resolution 42H-1986. Transaction 1986:536.
  • Code of Professional Conduct Section E: ADA’s Special Report: The ADA Principals of Ethics. Journal of the American Dental Association (April, 1990).
  • NIDR Workship Vol. 109 9/84.
  • Patents on amalgams by the ADA. U.S. Patent #4,018,600, April 19, 1977. U.S. Patent # 4,078,921, March 14, 1978. Both Patents have since expired.
  • The Superior Court of the State of California, Santa Clara County. Case No. 718228, Demurrer (October 22, 1992).
  • When Your Patients Ask about Mercury in Amalgams. ADA Division of Scientific Affairs. JADA, 120-395-8, 1990.

Mercury from amalgam fillings versus other sources

  • World Health Organization: Environmental Health Criteria Series, 1991.


  • Influence of amalgam fillings on Hg levels and total antioxidant activity in plasma of healthy donors. Pizzichini M, et al. Sci Total Environ. 2003 Jan 1; 301(1-3):43-50.


  • Neurodegenerative disorders in humans: the role of glutathione in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death. Bains JS, et al. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1997 Dec; 25(3):335-58/
  • Cysteine metabolism and metal toxicity. Quig D. Altern Med Rev. 1998 Aug:3(4):292-7. Doctor’s Data, Inc., West Chicago, IL, USA.


  • Autism, an extreme challenge to integrative medicine. Part 2: medical management. Kidd PM. Altern Med Rev. 2002 Dec; 7(6):472-99.
  • Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning. Bernard S, et al. Med Hypotheses. 2001 Apr; 56(4):462-71.
  • Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children. Holmes AS, Blaxill MF, Haley BE. Int J Toxicol. 2003 Jul-Aug; 22(4):277-85.
  • The role of mercury in the pathogenesis of autism. Bernard S., et al. Mol Psychiatry 2002;7 (Suppl 2):S42-S43.


  • Effect of home bleaching products on mercury release from an admixed amalgam. Robertello FJ, et al. Am J Dent. 1999 Oct; 12(5):227-30.

Blood and body fluids

  • The contribution of dental amalgam to mercury in blood. Snapp KR, et al. J Dent Res. 1989 May; 68(5):780-5.
  • Metal exposure from amalgam alters the distribution of trace elements in blood cells and plasma. Lindh U., et al. Clin Chem Lab Med 2001;39:134-46-142.


  • Application of a latent variable model for a multicenter study on early effects due to mercury exposure. Lucchini R, et al. Nuerotoxicology. 2003 Aug; 24(4-5):605-16.
  • Chronic Elemental Mercury Intoxication: Neuropsychological Follow Up Case Study. Hua MS, et al. Brain Inj. 1996 May; 10(5):377-84.
  • Comparison of the developmental effects of two mercury compounds on glial cells and neurons in aggregate cultures of rat telencephalon. Monnet-Tschudi F, et al. Brain Res. 1996 Nov 25; 741(1-2):52-9.
  • Correlation of dental amalgam with mecury in brain tissue. Eggleston DW, et al. J Prosthet Dent. 1987 Dec; 58(6):704-7.
  • Defensive characteristics in individuals with amalgam illness as measured by the percept-genetic method Defense Mechanism Test. Henningsson M, et al. Acta Odontol Scand. 1996 Jun; 54(3):176-81.
  • Entry of low doses of mercury vapor into the nervous system. Pamphlett R, Coote P. Neurotoxicology. 1998 Feb; 1991):39-47.
  • Improvement of Nerve and Immunological Damages after Amalgam Removal. Daunderer M. Amer. J. Of Probiotic Dentistry and Medicine, Jan 1991.
  • Mercury neurotoxicity: mechanisms of blood-brain barrier transport. Aschner M, et al. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1990 Summer; 14(2):169-76.
  • Mercury vapor inhalation inhibits binding of GTP to tubulin in rat brain: Similarity to a molecular lesion in Alzheimer diseased brain. Pendergrass JC, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1997; 18(2):315-24.
  • Metals and free radicals in neurodegeneration. Olanow CW, et al. Curr Opin Neurol. 1994 Dec; 7(6):548-58.
  • Motor neuron uptake of low dose inorganic mercury. Pamphlett R., et al. J Neurol Sci 1996;135:63-67.
  • Neurobehavioral effects from exposure to dental amalgam Hg(o): new distinctions between recent exposure and Hg body burden. Echeverria D, et al. FASEB J. 1998 Aug;12(11):971-80.
  • Neurological and neurophysiological study of chloralkali workers previously exposed to mercury vapour. Andersen A, et al. Acta Neurol Scand. 1993 Dec; 88(6):427-33.
  • Neuropsychiatric sequelae of mercury poisoning. The Mad Hatter’s disease revisited. O’Carroll RE, et al. Br J Psychiatry. 1995 Jul;165(1):95-8.
  • Oxidative damage to nuclic acids in motor neurons containing mercury. Pamphlett R., et al. J Neurol Sci 1998;159:121-126.
  • Psychometric evidence that mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in depression, excessive anger, and anxiety. Siblerud RL, et al. Psychol Rep. 1994 Feb; 74(1):67-80.
  • Shrinkage of Motor Axons Following Systemic Exposure to Inorganic Mercury. Pamphlett R, et al. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1998 Apr; 57(4):360-6.
  • Silent latency periods in methylmercury poisoning and in neurodegenerative disease. Weiss B, et al. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct; 110 Suppl 5:851-4.
  • Subjective symptoms and neurobehavioral performances of ex-mercury miners at an average of 18 years after the cessation of chronic exposure to mercury vapor. Mercury Workers Study Group. Kishi R, et al. Environ Res. 1993 Aug; 62(2):289-302.
  • Uptake of inorganic mercury by the human brain. Pamphlett R, et al. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1996 Nov; 92(5):525-7.

Breast milk

  • Exposure to toxic elements via breast milk. Oskarsson A, et al. Analyst. 1995 Mar; 120(3):765-70.
  • Mercury from maternal “silver” tooth fillings in sheep and human breast milk. A source of neonatal exposure. Vimy MJ, et al. Biol Trace Elem ReS. 1997 Feb; 56(2):143-52.
  • The Mercury Concentration in Breast Milk Resulting from Amalgam Fillings and Dietary Habits. Drexler H, et al. Environmental Research, 1998;77(2):124-129.
  • Total and inorganic mercury in breast milk and blood in relation to fish consumption and amalgam fillings in lactating women. Oskarsson A, et al. Arch Environ Health 1996 May-Jun; 51(3):234-41.

Cellular damage

  • Ag, Cu, Hg, and Ni ions alter the metabolism of human monocytes during extended low-dose exposures. Wataha JC, et al. J Oral Rehabil. 2002 Feb; 29(2):133-9.
  • Comparison of the interaction of methyl mercury and mercuric chloride with murine macrophages. Christensen MM, et al. Arch Toxicol. 1993; 67(3):205-11.
  • Mercury-induced apoptosis in human lymphocytes: caspase activation is linked to redox status. Shenker BJ, et al. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2002 Jun; 4(3):379-89.
  • Mercury intolerance in relation to superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and the nitroblue tetrazolium responses. Marcusson JA., et al. Environ Res 2000;83:123-128.
  • Methyl mercury, mercuric chloride, and silver lactate decrease superoxide anion formation and chemotaxis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Obel N, et al. Hum Exp Toxicol. 1993 Sep; 12(5):361-4.
  • Oxidative mechanisms underlying methyl mercury neurotoxicity. Sarafian T, et al. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1991; 9(2):147-53.
  • Oxidative Metabolism of neutrophils in vitro and human mercury intolerance. Marcuson JA., et al. Toxicol In vitro 1998;12:383-388.
  • Role of glutathione metabolism in the glutamate-induced programmed cell death of neuronal-like PC12 Froissard P, et al. Eur J Pharmacol. 1997 May 12;326(1):93-9.
  • Studies on Hg(II)-induced H2O2formation and oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro in rat kidney mitochondria. Lund BO, et al. Biochem Pharmacol. 1993 May 25; 45(10):2017-24.
  • Toxic metals and oxidative stress part I: mechanisms involved in metal-induced oxidative damage. Ercal N, et al. Curr Top Med Cham. 2001 Dec; 1(6):529-39.

Dentists and dental office

  • Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to elemental Hg among dentist. Echeverria D., et al. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1995;17:161-168.
  • Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to Hgo among dental professionals: a cross-study evaluation of psychomotor effects. Bittner AC Jr., et al. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1998;20:429-439.
  • Blood mercury levels of dental students and dentists at a dental school. Tezel H., et al. Br Dent J 2001;191:449-452.
  • Chronic low-level mercury exposure and neuropsychological functioning. Uzzell, B.P., et al. J of Clin and Exper Neuropsych. 8,851-193.
  • Chronic neurobehavioural effects of elemental mercury in dentists. Ngim CH, et al. Br J Ind Med. 1992 Nov; 49(11):782-90.
  • Health and neuropsychological functioning of dentists exposed to mercury. Ritchie KA, et al. Occup Environ Med. 2002 May; 59(5):287-93.
  • Mercury and arsenic levels among Lebanese Dentists: a call for action. Harakeh S., et al. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2003;70:629-635.
  • Mercury exposure of the population. IV. Mercury exposure of male dentists, female dentists and dental aides. Zander D, et al. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed. 1992 Dec; 193(4):318-28.
  • Neurobehavioral Effects from exposure to Dental Amalgam Hgo: New Distinctions Between Recent Exposure and Hg Body Burden. Echeverria, et al. FASEB J. 12,971-980. (1998).
  • Neuropsychological effects of low mercury exposure in dental staff in Erzurum, Turkey. Aydin N., et al. Int Dent J 2003;53:85-91.
  • Neurophysiological and neuropsychological function in mercury-exposed dentists. Shapiro, I.M., et al. The Lancet 1, 1147-1150 (1982).
  • Skeletal muscle abnormalities associated with occupational exposure to mercury vapours. Nadorfy-Lopez E., et al. Histol Histopathol 2000;15673-682.
  • Sodium Dimercaptopropane-1-Sulfonate Challenge Test for Mercury in Humans: II. Urinary Mercury, Porphyrins and Neurobehavioral Changes in Dental Workers in Monterrey, Mexico. Gonzalez-Ramirez, D; et al. J Pharmocol Exper Therap, 272(1):264-74 (1995).
  • Suicide among Swedish dentists. A ten-year follow-up study. Arnetz BB, et al. Scand J Soc Med. 1987; 15(4):243-6.

Disease and conditions


  • ADP-Ribosilation of Brain Neuronal Proteins in Altered by In Vitro and In Vivo Exposure to Inorganic Mercury. Palkiewicz, P.I., et al. Journal of Neurochemistry 62: 2049-2052, 1994.
  • Alzheimer Disease: Mercury as a Pathogenetic Factor and Apolipoprotein E as a Modeerator. Mutter. Neuroendocrinol Letter. 2004; 25(5):275-283.
  • Hg2+ Induces GTP-Tubulin Interactions in Rat Brain Similar to Those Observed in Alzheimer’s Disease. Haley, B., et al. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). 75thAnnual Meeting. Atlanta GA 21-25 April 1991. Abstract 493.
  • Amalgams and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Boyd Haley.
  • Imbalances of trace elements related to oxidative damage in Alzheimer’s disease brain. Cornett CR, et al. Neurotoxicology. 1998 Jun; 19(3):339-45.
  • Increased blood mercury levels in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Hock C, et al. J Neural Transm. 1998; 105(1):59-68.
  • Mercury induced Alzheimer’s disease: accelerating incidence? Ely JT. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2001;67:800-806.
  • Mercury induces cell cytotoxicity and oxidative stress and increases beta-amyloid secretion and tau phosphorylation in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Olivieri G, et al. J Neurochem. 2000 Jan; 74(1):231-6.
  • Mercury Vapor Inhalation Inhibits Binding of GTP to Tubulin in Rat Brain: Similarity to a Molecular Lesion in Alzheimer’s Disease Brain. Pendergrass, J. C., et al., Neurotoxicology 18(2), 315-324 (1997).
  • Retrograde Degeneration of Neurite Membrane Structural Integrity of Nerve Growth Cones Following In Vitro Exposure to Mercury. Leong, CCW, et al., Neuroreport, vol. 12, pps. 733-737 (2001).
  • The relationship of toxic effects of mercury to exacerbation of the medical condition classified as alzheimer’s disease (2002). Haley B.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis after accidental injection of mercury. Schwarz S., et al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1996;60:698.
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and mercury—preliminary report. Mano Y, et al. Pinsho Shinkeigaku. 19910 Nov; 30(11):1275-7.
  • Effects of Metals on the nervous system of humans and animals. Carpenter DO. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2001; 14(3):209-18.
  • Mercury intoxication simulating amyotrphic lateral sclerosis. Adams CR., et al. JAMA 1983;250:642-643.
  • Recovery from amyothrophic lateral sclerosis and from allergy after removal of dental amalgam fillings. Rehde O., et al. Int J Risk Safety Med 1994;4:229-236.


  • Mercury poisoning: an unusual cause of polyarthritis. Karatas GK., et al. Clin Rheumatol. 2002 Feb; 21(1):73-5.
  • Autoimmunity and Heavy Metals. Bigazzi PE. Lupus. 1994; 3(6):449-53.


  • Molecular mechanisms of metal toxicity and carcinogenesis. Wang S, et al. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Jun; 222(1-2):3-9.
  • Number of amalgam fillings in relation to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and early death in Swedish women. Ahlqwist M., et al. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1993;21:40-44.
  • Trace element and thyroid cancer. Zaichick VYe, et al. Analyst. 1995 Mar; 120(3):817-21.


  • Candida albicans therapy. Is there ever an end to it? Dental mercury removal: an affective adjunct. Zamm AV. J. Orthomol. Med. 1, 1986, 261-266.
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
  • Mercury and nickel allergy: risk facts in fatigue and autoimmunity. Sterzl I, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999: 20(3-4):221-228.
  • Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Stejskal VD, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(5):289-298.
  • Reactions to metals in patients with chronic fatigue and autoimmune endocrinopathy. Sterzl I, et al. Vnitr Lek. 1999 Sep; 45(9):527-31.
  • The frequency of mercury intolerance in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy controls. Marcusson JA. Contact Dermatitis 1999;41:60-61.


  • Neurologic features of chronic minamata disease (organic mercury poisoning) and incidence of complications with aging. Uchino M, et al. J Environ Sci Health B. 1995 Sep; 30(5):699-715.
  • Number of amalgam fillings in relation to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and early death in Swedish women. Ahlqwist M., et al. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1993;21:40-44.


  • Mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings in the etiology of primary fibromyalgia: a pilot study. Kotter I, Durk H, Saal JG, Kroiher A, Schweinsberg F. J Rheumatol. 1995 Nov; 22(11):2194-5.


  • Evidence that mercury from dental amalgam may cause hearing loss in multiple sclerosis patients. Siblerud RL, et al. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 1997. Vol. 12. 240-44.


  • Effects of mercury on myosin ATPase in the ventricular myocardium of the rat. Moreira CM., et al. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2003;135C:269-275.
  • Effects of small concentrations of mercury on the contractile activity of the rat ventricular myocardium. de assis GP., et al. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2003;1343:375-383.
  • Intake of mercury from fish, lipid peroxidation, and the risk of myocardial infarction and coronary, cardiovascular, and any death in eastern Finnish men. Salonen JT, et al. Circulation. 1995 Feb 1; 91(3):645-55.
  • Mercury and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Lorscheider F., et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:819-820.
  • Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and exposure to inorganic mercury. Boffetta P., et al. Occup Environ Med 2001;58:461-466.
  • Number of amalgam fillings in relation to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and early death in Swedish women. Ahlqwist M., et al. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1993;21:40-44.
  • The relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and the cardiovascular system. Siblerud RL. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Dec 1; 99(1-2):23-35.


  • Effect of mercuric chloride on macrophage-mediated resistance mechanisms against infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. Ellermann-Eriksen S, et al. Toxicology. 1994 Nov 11; 93(2-3):269-87.


  • Mercury from dental “silver” tooth fillings impairs sheep kidney function, Boyd, N.D., et al. The American Physiological Society, 11: 1010-1014, 1991.
  • Mercuiric ion attenuates nuclear factor-kappaB activation and DNA binding in normal rat kidney epithelial cells: implications for mercury-induced nephrotoxicity. Dieguez-Acuna FJ, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2001 Jun 15; 173(3):176-87.
  • Mercury concentrations in the human brain and kidneys in relation to exposure from dental amalgam fillings. Nylander M, et al. Swed Dent J. 1987; 11(5):179-87.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

  • A comparison of mental health of multiple sclerosis patients with silver/mercury dental fillings and those with fillings removed. Siblerud RL. Psychol Rep. 1992 Jun; 70(3 Pt 2):1139-51.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid protein changes in multiple sclerosis after dental amalgam removal. Huggins HA., et al. Altern Med Rev 1998;3:295-300.
  • Dental Amalgam and multiple sclerosis: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada. Bangsi D., et al. Int J Epidemiol 1998;27:667-671.
  • Evidence that mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in multiple sclerosis. Siblerud RL, et al. Sci Total Environ. 1994 Mar 15; 142(3):191-205.
  • Mercury in cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis. Ahlrot-Westerlund B. Swed J Biol Med 1989;1:6-7.
  • Multiple sclerosis and dental amalgam: case-control study in Ferrara, Italy. Casetta I., et al. Neuroepidemiology 2001;20:134-137.
  • Multiple sclerosis, dental caries and fillings: a case-control study. McGrother CW., et al. Br Dent J 1999;187:261-264.
  • Theoretical considerations on the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Is multiple sclerosis a mercury allergy? Baasch E. Schweiz Arch Neurol Neurochir Psychiatr 1966;98:1-19.

Parkinson’s Disease

  • Direct evidence for glutathione as mediator of apoptosis in neuronal cells. Nicole A, et al. Biomed Pharmacother. 1998; 52(9):349-55.
  • Epidemiologic Study on the Association between Body Burden Mercury Level and Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease. Ngim, C. Neuroepidemiology, 8:128-141 (1989).


  • Mercury—is it a respiratory tract allergen? Brouet M, et al. Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1990 Mar; 22(3):81. 84-8.


  • Effects of low mercury vapour exposure on the thyroid function in chloralkali workers. Ellingsen DG, et al. J Appl Toxicol. 2000 Nov-Dec; 20(6):483-9.


  • Color discrimination impairment in workers exposed to mercury vapor. Urban P, et al. Neurotoxicology. 2003 Aug; 24(4-5):711-6.
  • Reversible color vision loss in occupational exposure to metallic mercury. Cavalleri A, et al. Environ Res. 1998 May; 77(2):173-7.

Environmental release

  • Amalgam use and mercury emission in the Netherlands. Burger WG, et al. Med Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 1997 Mar; 104(3):95-8.
  • Determination of methyl mercury in dental-unit wastewater. Stone ME., et al. Dent Mater 2003;19:675-679.
  • Mercury in the environment: a volatile problem. Lutter, Randall. Environment. Nov, 2002.
  • Mercury in the hair of crematoria workers. Maloney SR., et al. Lancet 1998;352:1602.
  • Mercury in saliva and the risk of exceeding limits for sewage in relation to exposure to amalgam fillings. Leistevuo J., et al. Arch Environ.
  • More mercury from crematoria. Künzler P., et al. Nature 1991;349:746-747.
  • United States EPA International Mercury Market Study and the Role and Impact of US Environmental Policy 2004, referenced in Nov. 30, 2004 presentation by Linda Barr, EPA Office of Solid Waste, “EPA’s Draft Mercury Use Reduction Program.”

Factors affecting release of mercury from amalgam fillings

Acid Conditions in Mouth

  • Dissolution of mercury from dental amalgam at different pH values. Marek M. J Dent Res. 1997 Jun; 76(6):1308-15.

Chewing and grinding

  • Influence of chewing gum consumption and dental contact of amalgam Fillings to different metal restorations on urine mercury content. Gebel T, et al. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed. 1996. Nov; 199(1):69-75.
  • Intra-oral air mercury released from dental amalgam. Vimy MJ, et al. J Dent Res. 1985 Aug; 64(8):1069-71.
  • People with high mercury uptake from their own dental amalgam filling. Barregard L, et al. Occup Environ Med. 1995 Feb; 52(2):124-8.

Hot drinks

  • Factors influencing mercury evaporation rate from dental amalgam fillings. Bjorkman L, et al. Scand J Dent Res. 1992 Dec; 100(6):354-60.

Tooth brushing

  • Mercury exposure from dental fillings. II. Release and absorption. Langworth S, et al. Swed Dent J. 1988; 12(1-2):71-2.

Tooth grinding

  • The effect of dental amalgam restorations on blood mercury levels. Abraham JE, et al. J Dent Res. 1984 Jan; 63(1):71-3. 6582086 PubMed.
  • Impact of nocturnal bruxism on mercury uptake from dental amalgams. Isacsson G, et al. Eur  J Oral Sci. 1997 Jun; 105 (3):251-7.

Fecal metals

  • Fecal Mercury. ISTERH Third International Conference and NTES Fourth Nordic Conference on Disease. Malmström C, et al. Stockholm (Huddinge), May 25-29, 1992.
  • Mercury in saliva and feces after removal of amalgam fillings. Bjorkman L, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 May; 144(1):156-62.

Fetus, baby, and child

  • Cognitive deficit in 7-year-old children with prenatal exposure to methylmercury. Grand-jean P, et al. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1997 Nov-Dec; 19(6):417-28.
  • Concentrations of heavy metals in maternal and umbilical cord blood. et al. Biometals. 1993 Spring; 6(1):61-6.
  • Continuing Increases in Autism Reported to California’s Developmental Services System, Mercury in Retrograde Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(1):19-24.
  • Disposition of inhaled mercury vapor in pregnant rats: maternal toxicity and effects on developmental outcome. Morgan DL, et al. Toxicol Sci. 2002 Apr;66(2):261-73.
  • Environmental factors associated with a spectrum of neurodevelopmental defcits. Mendola P, et al. Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2002; 8(3):188-97.
  • Evolution of our understanding of methylmercury as a health threat. Watanabe C, et al. Environ Health Perspect. 1996 Apr;104 Suppl 2:367-79.
  • Maternal amalgam dental fillings as the source of mercury exposure in developing fetus and newborn., Palkovicova L, et al. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2007 Sep 12; Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovaki.
  • Maternal-fetal distribution of mercury (203Hg) released from dental amalgam fillings.
  • Vimy MJ, et al. Am J Physiol. 1990 Apr; 258 (4 Pt 2): R939-45.
  • Maternal-fetal transfer of metallic mercury via the placenta and milk. et al. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 1997 Mar-Apr; 27(2):135-41.
  • Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues. Drasch G, et al. Eur J Pediatr. 1994 Aug; 153(8):607-10.
  • Mercury in human colostrum and early breast milk. Its dependence on dental amalgam and other factors. Drasch G, et al. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1998 Mar; 12(1):23-7.
  • Methyl mercury and inorganic mercury in Swedish pregnant women and in cord blood: influence of fish consumption. Bjornberg KA, et al. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Apr; 111(4):637-41.
  • Placental transfer of mercury in pregnant rats which received dental amalgam restorations. Takahashi Y, et al. Toxicology. 2003 Mar 14;185(1-2):23-33.
  • Technical report: mercury in the environment: implications for pediatricians. Goldman LR, et al. American Academy of Pediatrics: Committee on Environmental Health. Pediatrics. 2001 Jul; 108(1):197-205.
  • The effect of mercury vapour on cholinergic neurons in the fetal brain: studies on the expression of nerve growth factor and its low – and high – affinity receptors. Soderstrom S., et al. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 1995;85:96-108.

Fish and food

  • Evaluation of the dose of mercury in exposed and control subjects. Apostoli P, et al. Med Lav. 2002 May Jun; 93(3):159-75.
  • Mercury in fish: cause for concern? U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Consumer. September 1994. Revised May 1995.
  • Neurotoxicity of organomercurial compounds. Sanfeliu C, et al. Neurotox Res. 2003; 5(4):283-305.

Free radicals

  • Accumulation of mercury and its effect on antioxidant enzymes in brain, liver, and kidneys of mice. Hussain S, et al. J Environ Sci Health B. 1999 Jul;34(4):645-60.
  • Activated human T lymphocytes exhibit reduced susceptibility to methylmercury chloride-induced apoptosis. Close AH, et al. Toxicol Sci. 1999 May;49(1):68-77.
  • Mutagenicity of mercury chloride and mechanisms of cellular defense: the role of metal-binding proteins. Schurz F, et al. Mutagenesis. 2000 Nov; 15(6):525-30.
  • Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Stohs SJ, et al. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995 Feb; 18(2):321-36.
  • Toxic metals and oxidative stress part I: mechanisms involved in metal-induced oxidative damage. Ercal N, et al. Curr Top Med Chem. 2001 Dec; 1(6):529-39.

Galvanic and corrosion effects

  • Acceleration of corrosion of dental amalgam by abrasion. Marek M. J Dent Res. 1984 Jul; 63(7):1010-3.
  • Initial corrosion of amalgams in vitro. Brune D, et al. Scad J Dent Res. 1984 Apr; 92(2):165-71.
  • Unusual in vivo extensive corrosion of a low-silver amalgam restoration involving galvanic coupling: a case report. Toumelin-Chemla F, et al. Quintessence Int. 2003 Apr; 34(4):287-94.


  • Genotoxicity of mercury compounds. De Flora S, et al. Mutat Res. 1994 Feb; 317(1):57-79.
  • Lead and mercury mutagenesis: type of mutation dependent upon metal concentration. Ariza ME, et al. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 1999; 13(2):107-12.
  • Mutagenesis of AS52 cells by low concentrations of lead (II) and mercury (II). Ariza ME, et al. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1996; 27(1):30-3.

Hair analysis

  • The present mercury contents of scalp hair and clinical symptoms in inhabitants of the Minamata area. Harada M, et al. Environ Res. 1998 May; 77(2):160-4.

Health, general

  • Environmental medicine, part three: long-term effects of chronic low-dose mercury exposure. Crinnion WJ. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Jun; 5(3):209-23.
  • Removal of dental amalgam and other metal alloys supported by antioxidant therapy alleviates symptoms and improves quality of life in patients with amalgam-associated ill health. Lindh U, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 2002 Oct-Dec; 23(5-6):459-82.

Immune system, autoimmune and allergy

  • Activation of the immune system and systemic immune-complex deposits in Brown Norway rats with dental amalgam restorations. Hultman P, et al. J Dent Res 1998;77:1415-1425.
  • Adverse immunological effects and autoimmunity induced by dental amalgam and alloy in mice. Hultman P, et al. FASEB J. 1994 Nov; 8(14):1183-910.
  • Amalgames dentaires et allergie. Veron C, Hildebrand HR, Martin P. J Biol Buccale 1986;14:83-100.
  • Contact dermatitis due to the mercury of amalgam dental fillings. Robinson, H.M., Bereston, E.S. Arch Dermatol Syphilol. 59:116-8, 1949.
  • Dental amalgam as one of the risk factors in autoimmune diseases. Bartova J, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 2003 Feb-Apr; 24(1-2):65-7.
  • Development of mercury hypersensitivity among dental students. White, R.R., Brandt, R.L. J Amer Dent Assoc. 92:1204-7, 1976.
  • Direct and indirect restorative materials. J Am dent Assoc, vol 134, no 4, 463-472. © 2003.
  • Does amalgam affect the immune system? A controversial issue. Enestrom S, et al. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 1995 Mar; 106(3):180-203.
  • Effects of mercury on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in vitro. Contrino J, et al. Am J Pathol. 1988 Jul; 132(1):110-8.
  • Epidemiologic Study of Occupational Contact Dermatitis in the Dental Clinic. D. Kawahara et al. Contact Dermatitis, vol 28, no. 2, pp 114-5, 1993.
  • Immunoglobulin levels in workers exposed to inorganic mercury. Queiroz ML, et al. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1994 Feb; 74(2):72-5.
  • Immunological and Brain MRI Changes in Patients with Suspected Metal Intoxication. Tibbling L, et al. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. vol. 4. no. 2. 1995.
  • Immunotoxic effects of mercuric compounds on human lymphocytes and monocytes. II. Alterations in cell viability. Shenker BJ, et al. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 1992; 14(3):555-77.
  • Mercury-specific lymphocytes: an indication of mercury allergy in man. Stejskal VD., et al. J Clin Immunol 1996;16:31-40.
  • Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Stejskal VD, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett 1999;20;221-228.
  • Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Stejskal VD, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett 199;20:289-298.
  • Murine mercury-induced autoimmunity: a model of chemically related autoimmunity in humans. Bagenstose LM, et al. Immunol Res. 1999;20(1):67-78.
  • Oral Contact Allergies. Source: Special Report By: Wayne Kuznar. Originally published: June 1, 2003;
  • Oral exposure to inorganic mercury alters T lymphocyte phenotypes and cytokine expression in BALB/c mice. Kim SH, et al. Arch Toxicol. 2003 Aug 20.
  • Oral Lichenoid lesions caused by allergy to mercury in amalgam fillings. Bryan K. Pang, et al. Contact & Occupational Dermatitis Clinic, Skin & Cancer Foundation, NSW, 2010, Australia. Contact Dermatitis 33(6), 423-427. Doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1995.tb02079.x.
  • Oral lichen planus and allergy to dental amalgam restorations. Laeijendecker R, Dekker SK, Burger PM, Mulder PG, Van Joost T, Neumann MH. Arch Dermatol. 2004 Dec;140(12):1434-8.
  • Oral lichen planus and contact allergy to mercury. Finne, K, et al. Int J Oral Surg 11(1982), 236-239.
  • Prevalence of mercury hypersensitivity among dental students. E.G. Miller et al. J Dent Res. 64:Abstract 1472, p338, 1985.
  • Prevalence of positive skin test response to 10 common allergens in the US population: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arbes SJ et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005; 116:377-383.
  • Systemic Autoimmunity Due to Mercury Vapor Exposure in Genetically Susceptible Mice: Dose-Response Studies. Warfvinge, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol, 132:299-309 (1995).
  • The beneficial effects of amalgam replacement on health of patients with autoimmunity. Stejskal VDM, et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett 2004; 25:211-218.
  • The health and economic impact of rhinitis. A roundtable discussion. Stempel DA. Am J Manag Care. 1997;3:S8-S18.
  • The role of metals in autoimmunity and the link to neuroendocrinology. Stejskal VD, et al Neuroendocrinol Lett 1999;20:351-364.
  • The possibilities of allergic reactions from silver amalgam restorations. Djerassi, E., Berova, N. Int Dent J. 19:481-8, 1969.
  • Validity of MELISA® for metal sensitivity testing. Valentine-Thon E., et al. Neuroendocrinol Lett 2003;24:57-64

Infertility and birth defects

  • Effect of heavy metals on immune reactions in patients with infertility. Stejskal VD., et al. Cas Lek Cesk. 2003;142:285-288.
  • Effect of occupational exposures on male fertility: Literature review. Sheiner EK.., et al. Ind Health 2003;41:55-62.
  • Heavy metals and fertility. Gerhard I, et al. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 1998 Aug 21; 54(8):593-611.
  • Impact of heavy metals on hormonal and immunological factors in women with repeated miscarriages. Gerhard I, et al. Hum Reprod Update. 1998 May-Jun; 4(3):301-9.
  • Infertility and Birth Defects: Is Mercury from Dental Fillings a Hidden Cause? Ziff S, et al. Bio-Probe, Inc. ISBN: 0-941011-03-8. 1987.
  • Paternal exposure to mercury and spontaneous abortions. Cordier S, et al. Br J Ind Med. 1991 Jun; 48(6):375-81.
  • The effect of occupational exposure to mercury vapour on the fertility of female dental assistants. Rowland AS., et al. Occup Environ Med 1994;51:28-34.


  • Association of mercury resistance with antibiotic resistance in the gram-negative fecal bacteria of primates. Wireman. J. et al. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 63/11: 4494-4503, Nov 1997.
  • Bacterial mercury resistance from atoms to ecosystems. Barkey T, et al. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003 Jun; 27(2-3):355-84.
  • Mercury released from dental “silver” fillings provokes an increase in mercury and antibiotic resistant bacteria in primates oral and intestinal flora. Vimy, M.J., et al. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 37:825-834, 1993.

Legal and political

  • The science and politics of dental amalgam. Gelband H. Int J Technol Asses Health Care. 1998 Winter; 14(1):123-34.
  • UN Committee Recommends Stricter Mercury Limits. New York, June 30, 2003. Environment News Service (ENS).
  • Dentists Settle in Mercury Cleanup Case. American Dental Association News. Aug. 15, 1988.


  • Biosynthesis of methylmercury compounds by the intestinal flora of the rat. Rowland I, et al. Arch Environ Health. 1977 Jan-Feb; 32(1):24-8.
  • Methylation of mercury from dental amalgam and mercuric chloride by oral streptococci in vitro. Heintze U, et al. Scand J Dent Res. 1983 Apr; 91(2):150-2.
  • The methylation of mercuric chloride by human intestinal bacteria. Rowland IR, et al. Experientia. 1975 SEP 15; 32(9):1064-5.
  • Transformations of inorganic mercury by Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yannai S, et al. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1991 Jan; 57(1):245-7.


  • An amalgam tattoo causing local and systemic disease? Weaver T, et al. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987 Jan; 63(1):137-40.
  • Mercury in saliva and feces after removal of amalgam fillings. Bjorkman L, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 May; 144(1):156-62.
  • The relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and oral cavity health. Siblerud RL. Ann Dent. 1990 Winter; 49(2):6-10.


  • Maternal periodontitis and prematurity. Part I: Obstetric outcome of prematurity and growth restriction. Offenbacher S, et al. Ann Periodontol. 2001 Dec; 6(1):164-74.
  • Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology and possible mechanism. Genco R, et al. J Am Dent Assoc. 2002 Jun; 133 Suppl:14S-22S.
  • Periodontal disease is associated with lower antioxidant capacity in whole saliva and evidence of increased protein oxidation. Sculley DV, et al. Clin Sci (Lond). 2003 Aug; 105(2):167-72.
  • Relationship between periodontal disease and C-reactive protein among adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Slade GD, et al. Arch Intern Med. 2003 May 26; 163(10):1172-9.

Release and absorption


  • Compositions of surface layers formed on amalgams in air, water, and saline. Hanawa T, et al. Dent Mater J. 1993 Dec; 12(2):118-26.
  • Daily dose estimates of mercury from dental amalgams. Lorscheider FL, et al. J Dent Res. 1991 Mar; 70(3):233-7.
  • Distribution of mercury in various tissues of guinea-pigs after application of dental amalgam fillings (a pilot study). Fredin B. Sci Total Environ. 1987 Oct; 66:263-8.
  • Documented clinical side-effects to dental amalgam. Ziff MF. Adv Dent Res. 1992 Sep; 6:131-4.
  • Estimation of mercury body burden from dental amalgam: computer stimulation of a metabolic compartmental model. Vimy MJ, et al. J Dent Res. 1986 Dec; 65(12):1415-9.
  • Estimation of the uptake of mercury from amalgam fillings based on urinary excretion of mercury in Swedish subjects. Weiner JA, et al. Sci Total Environ. 1995 Jun 30; 168(3):255-65.
  • Long-term mercury excretion in urine after removal of amalgam fillings. Beferow J, et al. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1994; 66(3):209-12.
  • Mercury in Biological Fluids After Amalgam Removal, Snadborgh-Englund, et al., J Dent Res, 77(4):615-24 (Apr. 1998).
  • Mercury Exposure from Silver Tooth Fillings: Emerging Evidence Questions at Traditional Dental Paradigm, Lorscheider, FL; et al., FASEB J., 9:504-8 (1995).
  • Side-effects: Mercury contribution to body burden from dental amalgam. Reinhardt JW. Adv Dent Res. 1992 Sep; 6:110-3.
  • Silver amalgam: An unstable material. Malmström C, et al. Danish Dental Journal. Tidsskr. f. Tandlaeger. October 1989. Swedish paper translated by Mats Hansson Ph.D., in Bio-Probe Newsletter. Vol 9(1):5-6. Jan 1993.
  • Urinary mercury after administration of 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid: correlation with dental amalgam score. Aposhian HV, et al. FASEB J. 1992 Apr; 6(7):2472-6.


  • A case of high mercury exposure from dental amalgam. Langworth S, et al. Eur J Oral Sci. 1996 Jun; 104(3):320-1.
  • A study of the release of mercury vapor from different types of amalgam alloys. A. Berglund, J Dent Res, 1993, 72:939-946.
  • Exposure to mercury in the population. II. Mercury release from amalgam fillings. Zander D, et al. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed. 1990 Oct; 190(4):325-34.
  • Human exposure to mercury and silver released from dental amalgam restorations. Skare I, et al. Arch Environ Health. 1994 Sep-Oct; 49(5):384-94.
  • Influence of amalgam fillings on Hg levels and total antioxidant activity in plasma of healthy donors. Pizzichini M, et al. Sci Total Environ. 2003 Jan 1; 301(1-3):43-50.
  • Influence of liquid films on mercury vapor loss from dental amalgam. Mahler DB, et al. Dent Mater. 2002 Jul; 18(5):407-12.
  • Inhalation of Mercury-Contaminated Particulate Matter by Dentists: An Overlooked Occupational Risk, Richardson, G.M., Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 9:1519-1531 (2003).
  • Intra-oral air mercury released from dental amalgam. Vimy MJ, et al. J Dent Res. 1985 Aug; 64(8):1069-71.
  • Mercury concentration in the mouth mucosa of patients with amalgam fillings. WIllershausen-Zonnchen B, et al. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1992 Nov 13; 117(46):1743-7.
  • Mercury in saliva and feces after removal of amalgam fillings. Bjorkman L, et al. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1997 May; 144(1):156-62.
  • Mercury vapor in the oral cavity in relation to the number of amalgam fillings and chronic mercury poisoning. H. Lichtenberg. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 1996. 11:2, 87-94.
  • Mercury vaporization from amalgams with varied alloy composition. Ferracane J L, et al., J Dent Res 1995; 74:1414-1417.
  • Model of mercury vapor transport from amalgam restorations in the oral cavity. Olsson S, et al. J Dent Res. 1989 Mar; 68(3):504-8.
  • Serial measurements of intra-oral air mercury: estimation of daily dose from dental amalgam. Vimy MJ, et al. J Dent Res. 1985 Aug; 64(8):1072-5.

Relationship to amalgam fillings

  • Factors affecting internal mercury burdens among eastern German children. Trepka MH, et al. Arch Environ Health. 1997 Mar-Apr; 52(2):134-8.
  • Mercury in biological fluids after amalgam removal. Sandborgh-Englund G, et al. J. J Dent Res. 1998 Apr; 77(4):615-24.
  • Mercury concentrations in the human brain and kidneys in relation to exposure from dental amalgam fillings. Nylander M, et al. Swed Dent J. 1987; 11(5):179-87.

Resistance to antibiotics

  • Mercury released from dental “silver” fillings provokes an increase in mercury- and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal floras of primates. Summers AO, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemothers. 1993 Apr; 37(4):825-34.
  • Resistance of the normal human microflora to mercury and antimicrobials after exposure to mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Edlund C, et al. Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Jun; 22(6):944-50.
  • Role of mercury (Hg) in resistant infections & effective treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes family viral infections (and potential treatment for cancer) by removing localized Hg deposits with Chinese parsley and delivering effective antibiotics using various drug uptake enhancement methods. Omura Y, et al. Acupunct Electrother Res. 1995 Aug-Dec; 20(3-4):195-229.


  • World Health Organization, Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury (1991) p. 36.


  • Exposure to mercury vapor during setting, removing, and polishing amalgam restorations. Haikel Y, et al. J Biomed Master Res. 1990 Nov; 24(11):1551-8.


  • ABC on mercury poisoning from dental amalgam fillings. Handbook for victims of mercury-poisoning from dental amalgam. Swedish Association of Dental Mercury Patients. Nov 1993. Mats Hanson, Ph.D.
  • Adverse health effects related to mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings: toxicological or psychological causes? Bailer J, et al. Psychol Med. 2001 Feb; 31(2):255-63.
  • Changers in the nervous system due to occupational metallic mercury poisoning. Langauer-Lewowicka H, et al. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 1997 Sep-Oct; 31(5):905-13.
  • Mercury: major issues in environmental health. Clarkson TW. Environ Health Perspect. 1993 Apr; 100:31-8.
  • Mercury vapour in the oral cavity in relation to the number of amalgam surfaces and the classic symptoms. Lichtenberg H. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine Vol 11:2. 87-94 1996.
  • Physical and mental problems attributed to dental amalgam fillings: a descriptive study of 99 self-referred patients compared with 272 controls. Malt UF, et al. Psychosom Med. 1997 Jan-Feb; 59(1):32-41.
  • Relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and health. Siblerud RL. Toxic Substances Journal. 10:425-444 1990b.

Symptoms improvement after amalgam removal

  • A multicenter survey of amalgam fillings and subjective complaints in non-selected patients in the dental practice. Melchart D., et al. Eur J Oral Sci 1998;106:770-777.
  • Adverse health effects related to mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings: toxicological or psychological causes? Bailer J., et al. Psychol Med 2001;31:255-263.
  • XII. Amalgam removed and patient cured. Eijkman MA, et al. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 1994 Feb; 101(2):50-3.
  • Commentary regarding the article by Gottwald et al.: “Amalgam disease” –poisoning, allergy, or psychic disorder? Mutter J., et al. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2003;206:69-70.
  • Consolidated symptoms of 1, 569 patients. Ziff S. Bio-Probe Newsletter. 9:2. March 1993.
  • Dental Amalgam and Health Experience: Exploring Health Outcomes and Issues for People Medically Diagnosed with Mercury Poisoning Jones L. The Bulletin of the New Zealand Psychological Society. 97, 29-33. 1999.
  • Elimination of symptoms by removal of dental amalgam from mercury poisoned patients, as compared with a control group of average patients. Lichtenberg HJ. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 1993; 8: pp. 145-148.
  • Psychological and somatic subjective symptoms as a result of dermatological patch testing with metallic mercury and phenyl mercuric acetate. Marcusson JA. Toxicol Lett 1996; 84:113-122.
  • Relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and mental health. Am J Psychother. Siblerud RL. 1989 Oct; 43(4):575-87.
  • Removal of dental amalgam and other metal alloys supported by antioxidant therapy alleviates symptoms and improves quality of life in patients with amalgam-associated ill health. Lindh U, et al. Neuroendorcrinol Lett. 2002 Oct-Dec; 23(5-6):459-82.
  • Results of dental amalgam removal and mercury detoxification using DMPS and neural therapy. Kidd RF. Altern Ther Health Med. 2000 Jul; 6(4):49-55.
  • Symptoms before and after proper amalgam removal in relation to serum-globulin reaction to metals. Lichtenberg HJ. Orthomolec Med 1996:11:195-204.


  • Correlation of dental amalgam with mercury in brain tissue. Eggleston DW, et al. J Prothet Dent. 1987 Dec; 58(6):704-7.
  • Dental amalgam: a review of the literature. Eggleston DW. Compendium. 1989 Sep; 10(9):500-5.
  • Dental mercury—a public health hazard. Pleva J. Rev Environ Health. 1994 Jan-Mar; 10(1):1-27.
  • Does mercury from amalgam restorations constitute a health hazard? Weiner JA, et al. Sci Total Environ. 1990 Dec; 99(1-2):1-22.
  • Environmental exposure to mercury and its toxicopathologic implications for public health. Tchounwou PB, et al. Environ Toxicol. 2003 Jun; 18(3):149-75.
  • Environmental medicine, part three: long-term effects of chronic low-dose mercury exposure. Crinnion WJ. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Jun; 5(3):209-23.
  • Evaluation of the safety issue of mercury release from dental fillings. Lorscheider FL, et al. FASEB J. 1993 Dec; 7(15):1432-3.
  • Mercury exposure and early effects: an overview. Kazantizis G. Med Law. 2002 May-Jun; 93(3):139-47.
  • Mercury exposure from “silver” tooth fillings: emerging evidence questions a traditional dental paradigm. Lorscheider FL, et al. FASEB J. 1995 Apr; 9(7):504-8.
  • Mercury exposure from “silver” fillings. Lorscheider FL, et al. Lancet. 1991 May 4; 337(8749):1103.
  • Metals and Neurotoxic Effects: Cytotoxicity of Selected Metallic Compounds on Chick Ganglia Cultures, Sharma, RP, et al. J Comp Pathol, 91(2):235-44 (1981).
  • Organic Mercury compounds: human exposure and its relevance to public health. Risher JF, et al. Toxicol Ind Health. 2002 Apr; 18(3):109-60.
  • Side-effects: mercury contribution to body burden from dental amalgam. Reinhardt JW. Adv Dent Res. 1992 Sep; 6:110-3.
  • The dental amalgam issue. A review. Hanson M, et al. Experientia. 1991 Jan 15; 47(1):9-22.
  • The relationship between mercury concentration in human organs and different predictor variables. Weiner JA, et al. Sci Total Environ. 1993 Sep 30; 1381(1-3):101-15.
  • Toxicity of mercury. Langford N, et al. J Hum Hypertens. 1999 Oct;13(10):651-6.
  • Toxicology of mercury. Clarkson Tw. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci. 1997 Aug; 34(4):369-403.
  • Whole-body imaging of the distribution of mercury released from dental fillings into monkey tissues. Hahn LJ, et al. FASEB J. 1990 Nov; 4(14):3256-60.


  • Transport of toxic metals by molecular mimicry. Ballatori N. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Oct; 110 Suppl 5:689-94.

Type of amalgam fillings

  • Effect of selenium on mercury vapour released from dental amalgams: an intro study. Psarras V, et al. Swed Dent J. 1994;18(1-2):15-23.

WHO: No safe level of Hg

  • World Health Organization (WHO), Environmental Health Criteria 118: Inorganic Mercury, pp, 28-33, 84-113, Geneva, 1991.
  • Inorganic Mercury. WHO Environmental Health Criteria 118.
  • WHO Geneva. 1991. ISBN 92-4-157118-7.